European Institutions

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, European Institutions has committed at least USD 17.59 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • No public money commitments identified for unconditional fossil fuels
  • Some public money committed for conditional fossil fuels (3 policies with the value of public money unquantified)
  • At least USD 178.91 million for unconditional clean energy through 4 policies (4 quantified)
  • At least USD 3.71 billion for conditional clean energy through 2 policies (2 quantified)
  • At least USD 13.70 billion for other energy through 3 policies (3 quantified)

By energy type, some public money committed for oil and gas (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

In addition, no public money commitments identified for coal.

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, some public money committed for multiple fossil fuels (2 policies with the value of public money unquantified).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of European Institutions through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Updated: 22 September 2021


At least

$0

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$0.00

Per capita



At least

$3.89 billion

Supporting clean energy

$8.69

Per capita

European Institutions

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, European Institutions has committed at least USD 17.59 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • No public money commitments identified for unconditional fossil fuels
  • Some public money committed for conditional fossil fuels (3 policies with the value of public money unquantified)
  • At least USD 178.91 million for unconditional clean energy through 4 policies (4 quantified)
  • At least USD 3.71 billion for conditional clean energy through 2 policies (2 quantified)
  • At least USD 13.70 billion for other energy through 3 policies (3 quantified)

By energy type, some public money committed for oil and gas (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

In addition, no public money commitments identified for coal.

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, some public money committed for multiple fossil fuels (2 policies with the value of public money unquantified).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of European Institutions through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in European Institutions recovery packages since January 2020, USD billion, as of 22 September 2021

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Policy type Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value as stated (specify currency) Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
European Institutions Member States Clean conditional Commission approves €2.9 billion public support for a second pan-European research and innovation ... Power generation Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 3310502283.105 2021012626/01/2021 Fiscal Electricity storage or transmission or distribution EU Commission Government To support research and innovation in the battery value chain. EUR 2.9 billion 2900000000 The Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a second Important Project of Common European Interest (“IPCEI”) to support research and innovation in the battery value chain. The project, called “European Battery Innovation” was jointly prepared and notified by Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden. The twelve Member States will provide up to €2.9 billion in funding in the coming years. The public funding is expected to unlock an additional €9 billion in private investments, i.e. more than three times the public support. The project complements the first IPCEI in the battery value chain that the Commission approved in December 2019. The project will cover the entire battery value chain from extraction of raw materials, design and manufacturing of battery cells and packs, and finally the recycling and disposal in a circular economy, with a strong focus on sustainability. It is expected to contribute to the development of a whole set of new technological breakthroughs, including different cell chemistries and novel production processes, and other innovations in the battery value chain, in addition to what will be achieved thanks to the first battery IPCEI.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_21_226 (Accessed 1 Feb 2021)
European Institutions Member States, Croatia Clean unconditional €55 million from the European Regional Development Fund to replace more than 68 km of Zagreb’... Buildings Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 62785388.127854 2021012525/01/2021 Fiscal Energy efficiency EU Commission Government To create a more reliable and efficient heating network. EUR 55 million 55000000 The European Commission has approved an investment worth over €55 million from the European Regional Development Fund to replace more than 68 km of Zagreb's heating pipes with a more reliable and efficient network. This major EU project for the capital of Croatia will reduce heat and water losses and will make the system compatible with renewable heating sources. The modernised heating system will ensure greater comfort for Zagreb's residents especially in winter. Moreover, with a reduction of the maintenance costs and a lower consumption of natural gas for water heating, the project will contribute to lower carbon emissions. Works will be implemented over the summers of 2021-2023 to avoid inconvenience for residents.

https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/eu-cohesion-policy-over-eu55-million-more-reliable-and-energy-efficient-heating-system-croatia-2021-jan-25_en (Accessed 25 Jan 2021)
European Institutions Member States Clean unconditional EIB provides EUR 28 million loan to Spanish GMP to develop near zero-energy buildings Buildings Energy efficiency Loan (Hybrid) 31963470.319635 2020110505/11/2020 Fiscal Energy efficiency European Investment Bank Public finance institution To help reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in office buildings. EUR 28 million 28000000 The European Investment Bank (EIB) and GMP PROPERTY SOCIMI (Gmp), one of Spain's biggest real estate groups, are set to finance green investments in Madrid, reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions in office buildings. To this end, the EU bank will provide the Spanish company with €28 million in financing for the development of near zero energy buildings (NZEBs) and for refurbishments works aimed at improving energy efficiency. The operation is supported by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), the main pillar of the Investment Plan for Europe. Thanks to the EIB support, Gmp will finance energy improvements in the flagship 38 346 m2 Castellana 81 building, and will develop new near zero energy projects such as the ARQBÓREA building in Las Tablas. The primary energy savings in the buildings covered by the EIB financing will be an estimated 3 420 megawatt hours per year (MWh/year), implying CO2 emissions savings equivalent to the average emissions produced by 124 EU households a year.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2038 (accessed 9 Nov 2020)
European Institutions Member States Clean unconditional Topeka, green hydrogen ship in Norway, granted €8m from Horizon 2020 Mobility Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 9132420.0913242 2020102727/10/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Horizon 2020 programme Government To support green transport and green hydrogen. EUR 8 million 8000000 The ship Topeka – grouped under the HySHIP project –will run on a 1,000-kilowatt-hour battery and a specialised hydrogen fuel cell, which means the vessel would emit no greenhouse gas emissions from the moment it launches, currently scheduled for 2024. The ship is expected to fulfil two functions once at sea: ferry customer cargo between Norwegian ports and deliver hydrogen sourced from clean energy to fuel bunkers along the coast. Topeka would be the first step towards scalable LH2 [liquid green hydrogen] fuelled maritime operations. This technology could help remove around 25,000 trucks from roads yearly. Equinor is also involved in this initiative.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/shipping/news/norways-green-hydrogen-ship-granted-e8m-in-eu-funding/ (accessed 2 Nov 2020)
European Institutions Member States Clean unconditional EU allots P3.76 B for Philippines green financing Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 75030839.041096 2020102626/10/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages European Commission Government To support the Philippines’ sustainable economic activities P 3.76 billion 65727015 The P3.76 billion fund under EU’s Access to Sustainable Energy Programme is intended to respond to the Philippines’ goal to increase energy access, promote renewable energy sources to decrease the use of polluting power sources and reduce negative impact on the environment and health. The fund is equally supposed to support the Philippines’s thrust in making energy efficiency and conservation a national way of life.

https://mb.com.ph/2020/10/26/eu-allots-p3-76-b-for-ph-green-financing/ Accessed 26 October 2020
European Institutions Member States Other energy €998 million funding approved for key European energy infrastructure projects under the Connecting... Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1139269406.3927 2020100202/10/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages EU Commission and EU Member States Government To create modern, secure and smart energy infrastructure system that supports the EU's climate goals and the European Green Deal agenda. EUR 998 million 998000000 EU Member States agreed on a Commission proposal to invest €998 million in key European energy infrastructure projects under the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF). The largest amount of funding goes to the Baltic Synchronisation Project (€720 million), to better integrate the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Other projects include a smart electricity grid linking Hungary and Slovakia (€102 million), and the first-ever CEF grant for works on a CO2 transport project for Belgian and Dutch ports. The allocation of funds is in line with the objectives of the European Green Deal, with 84% of funds going to electricity or smart grid projects. Yesterday's vote grants financial aid for ten projects: two for electricity transmission, one for smart electricity grids, six for CO2 transport (including five studies), and one for gas.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_20_1803 (accessed 6 Oct 2020)
European Institutions Member States Fossil conditional Revision of the EU Emission Trading System State Aid and Guidelines: change in the number of industr... Multiple sectors Multiple fossil New or extended regulation (IT... 2020092121/09/2020 Other Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) EU Commission Government To prevent carbon leakage but eliminate support for "non-efficient technologies" 01/01/2021 This revision to the EU Emission Trading System State Aid and Guidelines replaces the guidelines adopted in 2012 and will be effective as of the start of 2021, which will be the start of the new ETS period. The overall objective of the ETS system is to decrease carbon leakage. The measure will now apply to 10 sectors and 20 subsectors (compared to 13 sectors and 7 subsectors in the previous version) that have high indirect emission costs and strong exposure to international trade. Compensation is available to these strategic sectors because their electricity costs are high due to being included in the EU ETS yet have to compete with low-cost alternatives on the market. The percentage of compensation was also decreased from 85% to 75% and will no longer be available to non-efficient technologies. Furthermore, compensation will now be contingent on additional decarbonization efforts.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1712 Accessed 28 Sep 2020
European Institutions Member States Fossil conditional Additional powers granted to the EC to police car emissions Mobility Oil and oil products New or extended regulation (IT... 2020090101/09/2020 Other Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) European Commission Government To make sure Member States are effectively monitoring/ regulating road vehicle emissions and standards in light of the "Dieselgate" scandal. 01/09/2020 New EU rules on monitoring the vehicles on Europe’s roads grant the European Commission added powers to police car emissions and take to task any manufacturers that breach the law. Along with finalising a new testing procedure that better takes into account emissions produced in real-world driving scenarios, EU decision-makers also agreed in 2018 to update the legislation that underpins monitoring efforts. Those new rules kicked in Sept. 1st, 2020 and they include stricter checks on national authorities to ensure that they are implementing standards properly and an obligation on member states to test a certain number of cars that are already on the market. At least one in every 40,000 newly-registered cars will have to be checked. Member states are expected to foot the bill for those tests. The updated law also grants the Commission the right to conduct its own inspections, order vehicle recalls and issue fines, powers that were previously only enjoyed by national regulators.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/transport/news/greater-eu-powers-to-catch-and-fine-emissions-cheats-kick-in/ Accessed 8 September 2020.
European Institutions EU and Switzerland Fossil conditional EU and Switzerland to link emissions trading platform from September 2020 Multiple sectors Multiple fossil Uncategorized 2020080606/08/2020 Other Several energy stages European Commission Government To increase the number of trading partners for the trade of emissions permits. 21/09/2020 The EU and Swiss carbon markets will be linked up as of September 2020. While the original link-up date was set for May 2020, the coronavirus pandemic delayed this emissions trading market enlargement that has been "years in the making." The two registries are not yet permanent and will therefore use a provisional system to allow for trading this year. The EU carbon market covered about 1.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) in 2019, compared to less than 5 million tonnes of CO2e from industrial facilities in Switzerland in 2019. The volume of emissions covered by the Swiss scheme will increase in 2020 as Swiss power plants and some flights will be added to the market.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/eu-switzerland-to-link-emissions-trading-platforms-from-september/ Accessed 6 August 2020
European Institutions Member States, Sweden Clean conditional EIB loan to Swedish firm Nordvolt for the construction of a sustainable lithuim-ion battery cell fac... Multiple sectors Other energy type Loan (Hybrid) 399543378.99543 2020073030/07/2020 Fiscal Exploration or production or processing or storage or transportation European Investment Bank Public finance institution To support key European industries and technologies, particularly domestically-produced lithium-ion battery technology that is sustainably produced. 350000000 Northvolt is currently constructing its gigafactory in northern Sweden, where the firm intends to use 100% renewable energy and locally-sourced raw materials to manufacture lithium-ion battery cells, predominantly for use in electric vehicles. Europe wants to boost such domestic industry while minimizing the carbon footprint.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/batteries/news/eu-invests-e350m-in-first-domestic-battery-gigafactory/ Accessed 31 July 2020
European Institutions Member States Other energy Just Transition Fund under EU Recovery Fund Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 11415525114.155 2020072121/07/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages EU Commission Government Entice carbon-heavy countries to decarbonize, particularly CEE countries (biggest coal regions are in PL and DE). 10000000000 10000000000 Additional funding under the EU Recovery Fund, but the program itself traces to the European Green Deal. In January 2020, the just transition budget was EUR 7.5 billion, to be allocated under the regular budget. An increase to EUR 40bn was suggested under the EU recovery fund, which was eventually decreased to an additional EUR 10bn. On 15 Sep 2020, the European Parliament voted to allow fossil gas projects under this fund. The Parliament's position will now be transmitted to the EU member states for a final round of negotiations on the "shape and size" of the new fund. In a provisional agreement reached by the European Parliament 9 Dec 2020, it was agreed that fossil fuels (including natural gas) would not be eligible for funding under the program. Specifically, "The decommissioning or construction of nuclear power stations, activities linked to tobacco products and investment related to the production, processing, transport, distribution, storage or combustion of fossil fuels cannot be funded through the JTF." Furthermore, a “Green Rewarding Mechanism” will be introduced if JTF resources are increased after 31 December 2024. The additional resources will be distributed among member states, with those that succeed in reducing greenhouse gas emitted by their industrial facilities receiving more funding. There is a loophole, however: fossil fuel projects will have an allowance under the regional development fund (only 1% allowance up to 2025, after which funding will be cut off).

https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/about_the_european_commission/eu_budget/com_2020_460_en_act_v6.pdf Accessed 28 July 2020

https://balkangreenenergynews.com/eu-cuts-just-transition-fund-to-eur-10-billion-in-covid-19-recovery-deal/ Accessed 28 July 2020
European Institutions Member States Other energy EU opens up 1 billion in grants from the EU Innovation Fund for breakthrough low-carbon technologies Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020070303/07/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages European Commission Government To fund breakthrough low-carbon technologies; to help restart th EU economy and create a green recovery. 03/07/2020 1000000000 This is the first call for proposals under the Innovation Fund, which is financed by revenues from auctioning allowances under the EU Emission Trading System. The first round is EUR 1 billion. In total, the Commission plans to allocate EUR 10 billion over the period 2020-2030, but this will depend on the price of carbon. Since EUR 1 billion is currently committed and approved, that figure is reported here. This measure is classified as "other energy" because it may benefit not only clean energy but also fossil fuels conditional on emission reductions, e.g. via carbon capture and storage.

https://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/boosting-eu-green-recovery-commission-invests-1-billion-innovative-clean-technology_en Accessed 6 July 2020

https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/eu-opens-bidding-for-e1-billion-from-clean-technology-fund/ Accessed 6 July 2020