Germany

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, countries in Germany have committed at least USD 60.85 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 12.50 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 9.14 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (4 quantified and 1 unquantified)
  • At least USD 2.20 billion for unconditional clean energy through 3 policies (1 quantified and 2 unquantified)
  • At least USD 24.89 billion for conditional clean energy through 8 policies (8 quantified)
  • At least USD 12.11 billion for other energy through 2 policies (1 quantified and 1 unquantified)
Updated: 14 October 2020


At least

$21.64 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$260.32

Per capita



At least

$27.09 billion

Supporting clean energy

$325.89

Per capita

By energy type, Germany committed at least USD 15.80 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 12.50 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 3.30 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, Germany committed at least USD 4.74 billion to coal (at least USD 4.74 billion to conditional coal).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, no public money commitments identified for multiple fossil fuels.

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of Germany through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in recovery packages, USD billion, as of 14 October 2020

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Policy type Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value as stated (specify currency) Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
Germany National Clean unconditional Tax on greenhouse gas emissions for fuels, heating and gas Multiple sectors Multiple fossil New or extended regulation (IT... 2020100808/10/2020 Other Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To raise retail prices of car fuels such as gasoline and diesel, heating oil and natural gas. Germany’s lower house of parliament approved a tax on greenhouses gas emissions to be levied in stages from 2021, raising retail prices of car fuels such as gasoline and diesel, heating oil and natural gas. The move, which entails alterations to a law on fuel emissions trading, envisages a tax of 25 euros ($29.41) per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2021, rising to 55 euros per tonne in 2025. Gasoline prices will rise by 7 cents per litre and by 8 cents per litre for diesel from next year.
https://web.archive.org/web/20201012090616/
https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-germany-co2-tax-idUKKBN26T209 (accessed 12 October 2020)
Germany National Other energy Coal Phase-Out Act underlying Germany’s coal phase out by 2038 Multiple sectors Multiple energy types New or extended regulation (IT... 2020070303/07/2020 Other Several energy stages Government To phase out lignite power in Germany and assist transition of miners, lignite producing regions and lignite power generators The Coal Phase Out Act (Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze (Kohleausstiegsgesetz)) passed on 3 July 2020 underlies the plan to phase out coal by 2038. According to the Act, coal-fired power production in the country will come to an end no later than 2038. The law paves the way for a EUR 40 billion support programme for the economic transformation of coal regions and legislation to compensate coal plant operators for shutting down capacity. In particular, the Act stipulates that a total of EUR 4.35 billion in compensation will be paid for the planned shutdowns by 2030 (see separate entry in the Tracker). Further, the government would introduce adaptation payments for older workers in lignite mines and hard coal and lignite power plants who lose their jobs due to the coal exit plans, with a budget of up to EUR 5 billion by 2048. The Coal Phase-Out Act was passed 18 months after the issue of multi-stakeholder Coal Exit Commission's recommendations, so it has its roots well before the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis and government responses to it. The Act has implications for both coal and other energy types, hence it is classified here as "Other Energy".
https://www.bundesrat.de/SharedDocs/beratungsvorgaenge/2020/0301-0400/0392-20.html Accessed 27 July 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/spelling-out-coal-phase-out-germanys-exit-law-draft Accessed 27 July 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Compensation package for utilities operating lignite power stations Power generation Coal Budget or off-budget transfer ... 4735682819.3833 2020070303/07/2020 Fiscal Electricity generation Coal Phase-Out Act/German Government Government To phase out lignite power in Germany and compensate lignite power generators for loss of business 4300000000 The Coal Phase Out Act (Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze (Kohleausstiegsgesetz)) passed on 3 July 2020 (see separate entry) underlies the plan to phase out coal by 2038. The Act stipulates that a total of EUR 4.35 billion in compensation will be paid for the planned shutdowns by 2030. Western German power company RWE will receive EUR 2.6 billion for shutting down its plants by the end of 2029. EUR 1.75 billion will go to operations in the eastern German district Lusatia, run by the Lausitz Energie Kraftwerk AG (LEAG). Part of the money will not go to LEAG itself but to a trustee confirmed by the government. The compensation does not change in case the operators shut down plants earlier than planned. The Coal Phase Out Act was passed 18 months after the issue of multi-stakeholder Coal Exit commission Recommendations, so it has its roots well before the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis and government responses to it. However, this measure is included in the Tracker as a new policy that involves a significant public expenditure. It is classified as "fossil conditional" because, despite the end goal of phasing out coal, it pays the polluters.
https://www.bundesrat.de/SharedDocs/beratungsvorgaenge/2020/0301-0400/0392-20.html Accessed 27 July 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/spelling-out-coal-phase-out-germanys-exit-law-draft Accessed 27 July 2020
Germany National Clean conditional EV infrastracture and E-mobility and battery R&D support Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2753303964.7577 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To expand EV charging infrastructure across the country and ensure the availability of EV charging stations in all regions of the country 03/06/2020 EUR 2.5 billion 2500000000 The government aims to expand EV charging infrastructure across the country and ensure the availability of EV charging stations in all regions of the country. All petrol stations will be required to offer EV charging points.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Support for auto industry transformation (economic stimulus package) Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2202643171.8062 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government 03/06/2020 EUR 2 billion 2000000000 The federal government will set up a 2020-2021 bonus program for future investments by vehicle manufacturers and the supply industry. Research and development in transformation-relevant innovations and new regional innovation clusters, especially in the supply industry, will be supported with 1 billion euros in 2020 and 2021. This policy is classified as benefitting oil and oil products since its oriented towards suppliers of parts of internal combustion engine.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Fleet exchange programme for social services, to promote “electromobility” in cities and... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 220264317.18062 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To promote electric mobility in urban traffic and support non-profit organisations in converting their fleets 03/06/2020 EUR 200 million 200000000 For social services, a "Social & Mobile" fleet exchange programme for 2020-2021 is being set up to promote electric mobility in urban traffic and support non-profit organisations in converting their fleets.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Equity injection into Deutsche Bahn to enable continued investment in railway modernisation, expansi... Mobility Multiple energy types Equity injection or nationalis... 5506607929.5154 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To enable continued investment in railway modernisation, expansion, and electrification, 03/06/2020 EUR 5 billion 5000000000 As part of the Climate Protection Programme 2030, the German government has already decided to invest an additional 1 billion euros per year in Deutsche Bahn from 2020 to 2030. This will enable Deutsche Bahn to invest additional capital in the modernisation, expansion, and electrification of the rail network and the railway system. To be able to achieve this goal, and in view of the corona-related revenue shortfalls, the Federal Government will provide Deutsche Bahn with an additional equity capital of EUR 5 billion.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Bus and truck fleet modernization Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1321585903.0837 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To increase the demand for e-buses and make urban transport more environmentally friendly 03/06/2020 EUR 1.2 billion 1200000000 The federal government is investing in a "Bus and Truck Fleet Modernization Program", which is open to private and municipal operators alike to promote alternative drive systems. To increase the demand for e-buses and make urban transport more environmentally friendly, funding for e-buses and their charging infrastructure will also be increased for a limited period until the end of 2021.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Support for accelerated conversion to more efficient types of aircraft Mobility Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1101321585.9031 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To support accelerated conversion to more efficient types of aircraft 03/06/2020 EUR 1 billion 1000000000 Modern aircraft of the latest design emits up to 30% less CO2 and noise. This policy is meant to support the accelerated conversion to the new types of aircraft.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Modernisation fund for shipping, including traffic innovation and support for renewing government ve... Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1101321585.9031 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen, modernise, and digitise shipping as a climate-friendly means of transport 03/06/2020 EUR 1 billion 1000000000 This policy is meant to strengthen, modernise and digitise shipping as a climate-friendly means of transport. This includes, among other things, bank rehabilitation, modernisation of locks, replacement of vessels and digital test fields. The innovation support established by the Federal Government in the field of shipping, the Maritime Research Programme, the Land Electricity Support Programme, a new "LNG refuelling vessels support programme", a "fleet renewal programme for government vessels," and a new "Clean Ships Immediate Programme" will be provided with an additional 1 billion euros for projects starting in 2020 and 2021.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean unconditional Regulatory measures: abolition of cap on fundable maximum capacity for solar; target for offshore wi... Power generation Multiple renewable New or extended regulation (IT... 2020060303/06/2020 Other Electricity generation German Government Government To further promote the expansion of renewable energies 18/06/2020 To further promote the expansion of renewable energies, the cap on the funding of photovoltaics ("Solardeckel") at a capacity of 52 GW will be abolished immediately. The expansion target for offshore wind power will be raised from 15 to 20 GW in 2030. Regulation for wind turbines (minimum distance of 1,000 meters to next home) will be relaxed. The federal states will be given the opportunity to stipulate lower minimum distances. This also creates an opportunity for local authorities and residents to benefit more from the financial returns of wind power.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 17 June 2020

https://www.carbonbrief.org/coronavirus-tracking-how-the-worlds-green-recovery-plans-aim-to-cut-emissions Accessed 17 June 2020
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-energy-renewables/germany-set-to-remove-green-power-hurdles-at-next-cabinet-meeting-idUSKBN23J1NB Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Bailout of Condor Mobility Oil and oil products Loan (Hybrid) 605726872.2467 2020042727/04/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) The German government and the Hessian state government Government 27/04/2020 550000000 Condor received a €550m loan guarantee from the federal and Hessian government: €294m as corona-aid and €256m to refinance the bridging loan the airline received following the 2019 bankruptcy of Thomas Cook.
http://condor-newsroom.condor.com/en/de/news-article/condor-federal-government-and-hessian-state-government-pledge-guarantee/ Accessed 22 June 2020

https://www.forbes.com/sites/cathybuyck/2020/04/27/german-leisure-airline-condor-secures-yet-another-government-backed-loan-to-keep-afloat/#56d1acb8305e Accessed 22 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Bailout of TUI AG (including TUI Fly and cruiseships) Multiple sectors Oil and oil products Loan (Hybrid) 1982378854.6256 2020040808/04/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government/ KfW Government 08/04/2020 1800000000 The TUI Group has been granted a loan of €1.8bn for its airline, cruise, hotel, and travel agency operations. For lack of exact breakdown by activity we are assigning the whole amount to oil and oil products as the main fuel for the airline and cruise ships, noting the lack of environmental conditionalities.
https://www.tuigroup.com/en-en/media/press-releases/2020/2020-03-27-tui-ag-german-federal-government-approves-kfw-bridge-loan Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.tuigroup.com/en-en/media/press-releases/2020/2020-04-06-kfw-arrangement-signed Accessed 9 July 2020

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/touristik-tui-bekommt-staatshilfe-1.4872675 Accessed 9 July 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Support for public transport within municipal budgets (economic stimulus package) Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2753303964.7577 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government 03/06/2020 2500000000 Covid-19 pandemic has reduced ticket revenues for public transport. The federal government will support the federal states in 2020 with the financing of local public transport through a one-time increase in regionalization funds in 2020.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Clean unconditional Modernization of buildings for energy efficiency (economic stimulus package) Buildings Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2202643171.8062 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government Increase energy efficiency of buildings 03/06/2020 2000000000 Funding for the CO2 building renovation programme will be increased by one billion euros to 2.5 billion euros for 2020 and 2021. The federal government's funding programmes for the energy-efficient renovation of municipal buildings are also being increased and a programme to promote climate adaptation measures in social institutions will be launched.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Premiums doubled for EVs buyers (economic stimulus package) Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2422907488.9868 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen mobility while ensuring more sustainability and climate protection 31/12/2021 2200000000 The state will double the existing premiums for buyers of EVs.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Introduction of a new vehicles tax based on their CO2 emissions Mobility Oil and oil products Increased fossil fuel taxation 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen mobility while ensuring more sustainability and climate protection 01/01/2021 0 Starting from January 2021, new registered vehicles will be taxed according to the CO2 emissions per km (for vehicles with emissions above 95g CO2/km). Owners of cars with emissions over 195 grams/km will pay double the surcharge. The tax exemptions for EVs will be extended from 2025 to 2030
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Hydrogen foreign trade partnerships Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2202643171.8062 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages German Government Government To import hydrogen from partnership countries, make their economies less dependent on fossil fuels, and cover Germany’s hydrogen needs 03/06/2020 2000000000 Germany plans to build up hydrogen trade partnerships with countries in which hydrogen can be produced efficiently due to their geographical location. Based on German hydrogen technologies that would be developed in the next years, it is planned to import hydrogen from partnership countries, make their economies less dependent on fossil fuels and cover Germany’s hydrogen needs. Suitable hydrogen storage processes for the global, cost-efficient transport of hydrogen are to be developed. The establishment of a European hydrogen society to promote and develop common international production capacities and infrastructures will be explored and promoted with sufficient European support.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8" Accessed 5 June 2020

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-stimulus/germany-earmarks-7-8-billion-for-hydrogen-strategy-idUSKBN23B10L?il=0 Accessed 5 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional National Hydrogen Strategy (part of the economic stimulus package) Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 7709251101.3216 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Federal Government/Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy Government To make Germany the world's supplier of state-of-the-art hydrogen technology 03/06/2020 7000000000 The switch from fossil fuels to hydrogen is to be promoted and funded both through investment grants in new plants and a new pilot program to support the operation of electrolysis plants based on the carbon contracts-for-difference approach. Most of the electricity required is to be generated in offshore wind farms and it is planned to build hydrogen power plants with a total output of up to 5 GW by 2030 and 10 GW by 2040. The strategy provides for the creation of a 25-member national hydrogen council made up of people from business, science and civil society. A mandatory quota for aviation fuel and a demand quota for climate-friendly steel will be examined, as well as overall hydrogen infrastructure development.
https://www.bmbf.de/files/bmwi_Nationale%20Wasserstoffstrategie_Eng_s01.pdf Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Publikationen/Energie/die-nationale-wasserstoffstrategie.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=12 Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 9 July 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 9 July 2020
Germany National Other energy Reduction in electricity prices for consumers through a cut in the Renewable Energy Act levy/EEG-sur... Power generation Multiple renewable Uncategorized 12114537444.934 2020060303/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government Government Reduce the burden of financing renewables borne by German households and businesses, that already pay some of the highest power prices in Europe. 11000000000 Under the Renewable Energy Act, the EEG-surcharge represents the difference between the wholesale market price for power on the electricity market and the higher fixed remuneration rate for renewable energies. It is estimated for the following year, based on historic and current data. It is paid by all electricity consumers with the exception of energy intensive industries and operators of renewable power plants that use electricity they generate themselves. The EEG surcharge has increased as electricity prices have declined due to increased renewables presence in the market and cheap coal.
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Lufthansa bailout Mobility Oil and oil products Equity injection or nationalis... 9911894273.1278 2020062525/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government and KfW Government To keep the struggling airline aloft 9000000000 Lufthansa will receive a EUR 9 billion bailout in exchange for the state taking a 20% share in the airline company. This deal has been approved by Lufthansa stakeholders.
https://www.dw.com/en/lufthansa-bailout-package-overwhelmingly-backed-by-shareholders/a-53936823 Accessed 2 July 2020