Germany

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, Germany has committed at least USD 125.74 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 18.92 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (5 quantified)
  • At least USD 11.47 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 9 policies (6 quantified and 3 unquantified)
  • At least USD 12.62 billion for unconditional clean energy through 12 policies (4 quantified and 8 unquantified)
  • At least USD 29.08 billion for conditional clean energy through 12 policies (12 quantified)
  • At least USD 53.65 billion for other energy through 5 policies (4 quantified and 1 unquantified)

By energy type, Germany committed at least USD 20.95 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 16.38 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 4.57 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, Germany committed at least USD 5.76 billion to coal (at least USD 5.76 billion to conditional coal).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, some public money committed for multiple fossil fuels (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of Germany through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

More information on key poverty and inequality indicators in Germany can be found on the Inequality and Poverty Dashboard page.

Updated: 22 June 2022


At least

$30.39 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$365.54

Per capita



At least

$41.70 billion

Supporting clean energy

$501.62

Per capita

Germany

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, Germany has committed at least USD 125.74 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 18.92 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (5 quantified)
  • At least USD 11.47 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 9 policies (6 quantified and 3 unquantified)
  • At least USD 12.62 billion for unconditional clean energy through 12 policies (4 quantified and 8 unquantified)
  • At least USD 29.08 billion for conditional clean energy through 12 policies (12 quantified)
  • At least USD 53.65 billion for other energy through 5 policies (4 quantified and 1 unquantified)

By energy type, Germany committed at least USD 20.95 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 16.38 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 4.57 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, Germany committed at least USD 5.76 billion to coal (at least USD 5.76 billion to conditional coal).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, some public money committed for multiple fossil fuels (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of Germany through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

More information on key poverty and inequality indicators in Germany can be found on the Inequality and Poverty Dashboard page.

$ %

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in Germany recovery packages since January 2020, USD billion, as of 22 June 2022

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
Germany National Clean conditional Germany launches funding call for alternatively powered trains Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 84474885.844749 2021061818/06/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To improve rail infrastructure in Germany 18/06/2021 74000000 In June 2021, the funding call for alternative drive systems and charging and refueling infrastructure in rail transport, such as overhead line sections for recharging batteries and stations for charging trains at stations, was launched. The basis for this is the new "Guideline for the Promotion of Alternative Drive Systems in Rail Transport." According to financial planning, budget funds of 74 million euros are available for the program until 2024.

https://www.bmvi.de/DE/Themen/Mobilitaet/Elektromobilitaet/Ladeinfrastruktur/Ladeinfrastruktur.html

https://www.electrive.net/2021/06/18/bmvi-foerderaufruf-fuer-alternativ-angetriebene-zuege/
Germany National Clean conditional Germany supports publicly accessible charging infrastructure for electric vehicles Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 570776255.70776 2021062828/06/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To further improve the charging infrastructure in Germany 17/08/2021 500000000 Germany relaunched the funding guideline "Publicly accessible charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in Germany" with a volume of 500 million euros until 2025. The funding guideline was approved by the EU Commission on June 28, 2021. The first funding call for public charging points was published on August 17, 2021, and the second funding call on August 18, 2021.

https://www.bmvi.de/DE/Themen/Mobilitaet/Elektromobilitaet/Ladeinfrastruktur/Ladeinfrastruktur.html

https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Artikel/G/foerderrichtlinie-ladeinfrastruktur-elektrofahrzeuge.html
Germany National Clean unconditional Launch of the Northern Germany Regulatory Sandbox to accelerate the process of translating research ... Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 59360730.593607 2021041414/04/2021 Several energy stages German Government Government To support research on green hydrogen in Northern Germany 14/04/2021 52000000 A total of €52 million is available for the Northern Germany Regulatory Sandbox. The aim is to use green hydrogen to integrate industry, transport and the supply of heat in a consistent manner, thus saving large amounts of carbon dioxide. The regulatory sandboxes for the energy transition are a funding instrument within the framework of the Federal Government’s Seventh Energy Research Programme. The funding provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy is used to support companies and research institutions that are developing tangible solutions for the energy transition. The regulatory sandboxes enable experts to test innovative energy technologies under existing market conditions and on an industrial scale, thus helping to speed up the process from technological development to market penetration.

https://www.bmwk.de/Redaktion/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2021/04/210414-Launch-of-the-Northern-Germany-Regulatory-Sandbox.html

https://www.bmz.de/en/news/press-releases/indonesian-german-initiative-to-improve-green-infrastructure-104378
Germany National Fossil unconditional EUR 920 million for 15 German airports Mobility Non-applicable (non-energy measure) Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1050228310.5023 2021021212/02/2021 Non-applicable (non-energy measure) German Government Government To maintain regional infrastructure 12/02/2021 920000000 "Last autumn, Minister of Transport Andreas Scheuer proposed a 50-50 model between the federal and state governments to help airports. Specifically, the idea is to reimburse the costs of keeping airports open at the beginning of the Corona pandemic. During the lockdown in March and April, airports were kept open at the request of politicians despite the dramatic drop in passenger numbers - so that German tourists from abroad could be brought home and masks and medicines could be transported. In concrete terms, this involves a sum of 200 million euros from the federal government and the airports' holding costs from March to the end of June 2020. In addition, the federal government is putting around 400 million euros into the three airports with federal participation, in addition to Berlin, these are Munich and Cologne-Bonn. The preconditions for federal support are that the respective federal states provide a subsidy in the same amount, that no dividends are distributed for 2020 and that no bonuses are paid to managing directors and board members of the operating companies. In addition, the Federal Government will support small airports in connection with air navigation services. To this end, a second charging area supported with federal funds is to be created for aerodromes that do not belong to those under § 27d para. 1 of the Air Traffic Act, but where air navigation services are recognised as necessary. Up to now, small airports have borne the costs of air traffic control themselves and cannot always pass them on to airspace users. 20 million euros have been earmarked for this support measure in the 2021 budget. DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (air navigation services) will receive equity support of €300 million in 2021. "

https://web.archive.org/web/20210216081901/
https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Artikel/LF/massnahmenpaket-fuer-deutsche-flughaefen.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20210213144622/
https://www.saarbruecker-zeitung.de/nachrichten/wirtschaft/bund-will-nur-groesseren-flughaefen-direkt-helfen_aid-56214077
Germany National Fossil unconditional TUI Rescue Swells to $5.8 Billion With Third Government Deal Mobility Non-applicable (non-energy measure) Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1484018264.8402 2020120202/12/2020 Non-applicable (non-energy measure) German Government Government To support the world's biggest tour operator in the face of the new wave of virus lockdown 02/12/2020 1300000000 The latest package of 1.8 billion euros will include 1.3 billion euros from the state - amassed from federal fund WSF, state-run lender KfW and a state debt guarantee -- together with 500 million euros from a shareholder capital increase. The bailout, which adds to earlier rescue packages granted in April and August, was delayed by a debate over what conditions the state should attach, especially how much control the government should have over the company. TUI was already Germany’s second-biggest coronavirus-bailout recipient, topped only by airline Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Parts of the package can be converted into equity, meaning the government could end up holding 25% plus one share in TUI. The German state will also nominate two members to TUI’s supervisory board, and the deal comes with restrictions such as preventing the firm investing in other companies. No job cuts are foreseen.

https://web.archive.org/web/20201207110058/
https://www.bloomberg.com/tosv2.html?vid=&uuid=7c1adc00-387b-11eb-b103-f9a1773f71e7&url=L25ld3MvYXJ0aWNsZXMvMjAyMC0xMi0wMi90dWktaXMtcG9pc2VkLXRvLXJlY2VpdmUtdGhpcmQtZ2VybWFuLWJhaWxvdXQtc2luY2UtdmlydXMtaGl0

https://web.archive.org/web/20201207110224/
https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2020/12/20201202-zitat-sprecherin-bmwi-zu-tui.html
Germany National Fossil conditional Germany pledges EUR 700 million to help South Africa ditch coal Power generation Coal Budget or off-budget transfer ... 799086757.99087 2021110202/11/2021 Several energy stages German Government Government To facilitate a Just Transition in South Africa 02/11/2021 700000000 "The US and several European nations, including Germany, have pledged $8.5 billion (€7.3 billion) to help South Africa phase out coal and expand renewable sources of energy. The partnership was announced at the COP26 climate conference in Glasgow on Tuesday. Germany said it planned to invest €700 million as part of the plan, which is also backed by the UK, France and the European Union."

https://www.dw.com/en/germany-pledges-funds-to-help-south-africa-ditch-coal/a-59699018
Germany National Clean unconditional Germany funds two projects researching alternatives to fossil fuel use in the glass industry with EU... Other sector Other energy type Budget or off-budget transfer ... 5136986.3013699 2021112424/11/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To facilitate Germany's efforts to decarbonize its domestic industry. 24/11/2021 4500000 The Federal Environment Ministry in Germany (BMU) is funding two projects researching alternatives to fossil fuel use in the glass industry. Glass manufacturer Schott, based in Mainz, will receive around 4.5 million euros in total as part of the BMU’s Decarbonization in Industry programs, which aims to reduce emissions in energy-intensive industries through the use of innovative technologies.

https://web.archive.org/web/20220603063612/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/german-environment-ministry-launches-project-decarbonise-glass-industry
Germany National Clean unconditional Government defines “green hydrogen” and decides rules for rapid market ramp-up Power generation Hydrogen Other hybrid support measures 2021052020/05/2021 Exploration or production or processing or storage or transportation German Government Government To increase the uptake of hydrogen, accompanying the latest version of the Renewable Energy Act (EEG) which specifies support for new hydrogen production facilities and other renewable installations such as biogas plants and agri-solar PV. 20/05/2021 Germany’s first movers in hydrogen generation using electricity will be supported by lower power prices and a wide definition of “green” hydrogen, the government has decided. By creating “clear and pragmatic” requirements for green hydrogen, a rapid market ramp-up of the technology is aimed for by the government. To make the ramp-up of electrolysers more attractive, they will be partially exempt from the renewable energy surcharge (EEG levy). This will make the electricity used in the process cheaper. The EEG levy is generally paid by all electricity consumers with their power bills and the money is used to pay for feed-in support of renewable installations. Producers of green hydrogen, who use renewable energy for the process, are exempt. So are energy intensive companies, such as large chemical plants, who largely focus on electrolysis, regardless of the origin of the electricity used in production. In the interest of a rapid ramp-up of hydrogen production, the ministry decided against a stricter definition of green hydrogen and against rules for the location of electrolysers.

http://web.archive.org/web/20210523142703/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/government-defines-green-hydrogen-decides-rules-rapid-market-ramp?pk_campaign=weekly_newsletter_2021-05-21&pk_keyword=government-defines-green-hydrogen-decides-rules-rapid-market-ramp&pk_source=newsletter&pk_medium=email&pk_content=title
Germany National Clean unconditional German parliament agrees higher renewable expansion goals for 2022 Power generation Multiple renewable New or extended regulation (IT... 2021042222/04/2021 Exploration or production or processing or storage or transportation German Government Government To increase tender volumes for solar and wind for 2022 22/04/2021 The governing coalition parties in German parliament have agreed on higher tender volumes for next year's wind and solar PV installations. But parliamentarians did not make headway on a new renewables target for 2030, which has become necessary after the EU raised its overall 2030 emission reduction target to 55 percent, leaving this key step to the next government following the September elections. They also agreed to cap the renewables surcharge paid by consumers with their power bills to 5 cents per kilowatt-hour in the years 2023 and 2024. The renewables industry welcomed the short-term increase in capacity additions, but said that much higher targets were needed in the long term.

https://web.archive.org/web/20210502071227/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/german-parliament-agrees-higher-renewable-expansion-goals-2022
Germany National Clean unconditional Commission approves modified German support scheme for offshore wind energy Power generation Wind Other hybrid support measures 2021032929/03/2021 Electricity generation European Commission Government To further develop offshore wind energy generation in Germany The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a German operating aid scheme to further develop offshore wind energy generation in Germany (modified ‘WindSeeG’). The scheme, that will replace support for offshore wind under an existing scheme that the Commission approved as part of a 2017 State aid decision in case SA.45461, will increase the target for installed offshore wind capacity from 15 Gigawatt (GW) to 20 GW by 2030 and set a target of 40 GW of installed offshore capacity by 2040. Like the existing scheme, the new scheme is based on the centralized model, where the State pre-selects and tenders specific sites for offshore wind development. The aid will be granted in the form of a premium on top of the electricity market price, that will be set on the basis of the lowest bid in open and transparent competitive tenders, and will be paid for a period of 20 years. The scheme is approved until 2026.

https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/state-aid-commission-approves-modified-german-support-scheme-offshore-wind-energy-2021-mar-29_en (accessed 29 Mar 2021)
Germany National Clean unconditional Germany and Canada agree to explore green hydrogen development Power generation Hydrogen Uncategorized 2021031616/03/2021 Several energy stages German Government Government To drive forward Germany's National Hydrogen Mission 16/03/2021 Germany and Canada agreed on Tuesday to explore the joint development of green hydrogen from Canadian hydroelectric power for export to Germany.

https://web.archive.org/web/20210321085009/
https://www.reuters.com/article/germany-canada-hydrogen/germany-canada-agree-to-explore-green-hydrogen-development-idUSL8N2LE5A3
Germany National Clean conditional Extension of subsidies for wallboxes for electric vehicles Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 342465753.42466 2021072121/07/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To facilitate the uptake of electric vehicles in Germany 21/07/2021 300000000 The subsidy for private charging stations for electric cars on residential buildings will be increased once again by a further 300 million euros and thus extended. A subsidy of 900 euros will support the purchase and installation of the so-called wallboxes. A total of 800 million euros in federal funding is now available for this purpose.

https://www.bmwk.de/Redaktion/EN/Dossier/electric-mobility.html

https://chargedevs.com/newswire/germany-increases-funding-for-residential-charging-station-subsidies-to-e800-million/
https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2021/076-scheuer-wallbox-foerderung-verlaengert.html
Germany National Clean conditional Germany launches tender to quickly expand countrywide e-car charging network Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105022.8311 2021081717/08/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To facilitate the uptake of electric vehicles in Germany 17/08/2021 2000000000 The German Transport Ministry has set aside two billion euros for the Deutschlandnetz (German network) scheme and will award tenders for charging stations on country roads and later also on motorways

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-launches-tender-quickly-expand-countrywide-e-car-charging-network
Germany National Clean conditional Germany invests 8 billion euros in 62 EU-backed hydrogen projects Power generation Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 9132420091.3242 2021052828/05/2021 Several energy stages German Government Government To reshape mobility in Germany and the EU, from the energy system and drive technologies to the fuelling infrastructure. 28/05/2021 8000000000 As part of Germany’s long-term strategy to make hydrogen a cornerstone of its energy transition, the federal ministries for economic affairs and energy (BMWi) and of transport and digital infrastructure (BMVI) have selected 62 large-scale projects that are to be funded as part of a joint EU investment in hydrogen technology, the government announced today. In taking part in the joint Important Projects of Common European Interest (IPCEI), Germany is also implementing a significant part of its own National Hydrogen Strategy

http://web.archive.org/web/20210529084338/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-invests-8-billion-euros-62-eu-backed-hydrogen-projects?pk_campaign=weekly_newsletter_2021-05-28&pk_keyword=germany-invests-8-billion-euros-62-eu-backed-hydrogen-projects&pk_source=newsletter&pk_medium=email&pk_content=title
Germany National Other energy German parliament raises targets for emission cuts in transport sector Mobility Multiple energy types New or extended regulation (IT... 2021052121/05/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To align with and even exceed the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (RED II), passed on 20 May 2021. 21/05/2021 Germany has increased the emissions reduction targets in its transport sector. Following changes introduced by parliament, the sector has to reach a share of 32 percent renewables by 2030. The use of biofuels made from palm oil will be ended by 2023. The bioenergy lobby welcomed the changes, saying that they would help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide planning security.

http://web.archive.org/web/20210523141825/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/german-parliament-raises-targets-emission-cuts-transport-sector?pk_campaign=weekly_newsletter_2021-05-21&pk_keyword=german-parliament-raises-targets-emission-cuts-transport-sector&pk_source=newsletter&pk_medium=email&pk_content=title
Germany National Other energy Commission approves prolongation and modification of German scheme to support electricity production... Power generation Multiple energy types Other hybrid support measures 37671232876.712 2021042929/04/2021 Electricity generation EU Commission Government The scheme will help Germany reach its renewable energy targets without unduly distorting competition and will contribute to the EU objective of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. 29/04/2021 33000000000 The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, the prolongation and modification of a German scheme to support the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and from mine gas, as well as reductions of charges to fund support for electricity from renewable sources. The reduction of charges will be available to (i) energy-intensive companies and (ii) shore-side electricity supply to ships while at berth in ports. The scheme is part of the German Renewable Energy Act (“Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz” - ‘EEG 2021'). The scheme will help Germany reach its renewable energy targets without unduly distorting competition and will contribute to the EU objective of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. Payments under the scheme for 2021 have been estimated to amount to around €33.1 billion. Beneficiaries will generally receive support via a sliding premium on top of the electricity market price, with the exception of very small installations, which will be eligible to receive feed-in tariffs. Moreover, in the majority of cases, beneficiaries will be selected through competitive bidding processes. In particular, tenders are organised per technology, including a newly introduced separation of rooftop and ground based solar photovoltaic, and separate tenders for biomethane. Moreover, innovation tenders for projects spanning several technologies will also be organised, allowing for a certain degree of technological neutrality and to gather experience on how to make electricity production from RES installations less intermittent. Finally, as biomass and onshore wind tenders have been regularly undersubscribed in the past, the EEG 2021 contains clear safeguards for tenders to be competitive, therefore unfolding their full potential to avoid overcompensation and to keep costs to a minimum for consumers and taxpayers. Rules to sell electricity in line with market signals have also been further improved in the EEG 2021.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_2042 (accessed 3 May 2021)
Germany National Clean unconditional Tax exemptions for electric vehicles to be extended from 2025 to 2030 Mobility Multiple energy types New or extended regulation (IT... 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen mobility while ensuring more sustainability and climate protection. 01/01/2021 The tax exemptions for EVs will be extended from 2025 to 2030.

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme (Accessed 25 May 2021)
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 (Accessed 25 May 2021)
Germany National Clean unconditional Germany and Saudi Arabia sign Declaration of Intent to cooperate on green hydrogen Power generation Hydrogen Uncategorized 2021031212/03/2021 Several energy stages German Government Government To drive forward Germany's National Hydrogen Mission 12/03/2021 Germany and Saudi Arabia have signed a declaration of intent to cooperate closely in the areas of production, processing, application and transport of green hydrogen. The memorandum of understanding includes the aim to implement specific hydrogen projects (e.g. NEOM) and start a knowledge exchange and cooperation in the private sector on technology, economy and regulation. In its hydrogen strategy, the German government has identified a demand of 90-110 terawatt-hours of climate-neutral hydrogen by 2030, a high proportion of which will have to be imported. With the support of the government, German industry is working to become a leader along the whole hydrogen value chain, including the use of hydrogen to create synthetic fuels such as e-kerosene.

https://web.archive.org/web/20210314074115/
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-and-saudi-arabia-want-cooperate-hydrogen (Accessed 15 March 2021)
Germany Subnational - Berlin Clean unconditional Berlin gets Germany’s first pedestrian law Mobility Active transport New or extended regulation (IT... 2021012828/01/2021 Active transport (cycling or walking) Berlin's state parliament Government To increase foot traffic. 28/01/2021 Like the original law from two years ago, which noticeably boosted bike infrastructure around the city, the pedestrian-focused amendment lays out a hefty to-do list: longer green lights for pedestrians, safer school routes for kids, more crosswalks and more benches for older people and others in need of a rest along their route; curbs are to be lowered to make them more wheelchair accessible; construction sites will need to ensure that pedestrians and cyclists can safely navigate around them; and city authorities are supposed to crack down harder on illegal parking and dangerous driving.

https://www.dw.com/en/berlin-gets-germanys-first-pedestrian-law/a-56480003 (Accessed 15 February 2021)

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/digital/berlin-fussgaenger-gesetz-1.5189542 (Accessed 15 February 2021)
Germany National Other energy 1 billion EUR to fund to finance innovation and transformation in Germany’s auto sector (part ... Mobility Other energy type Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020111717/11/2020 Other energy stage German Government Government To support the development and production of climate-friendly cars as the auto industry grapples with challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and global climate crisis. 17/11/2020 1000000000 This measure refers to the one billion euros committed to finance innovation and transformation in Germany’s leading export industry ("Zukunftsfonds Automobilindustrie").

https://de.reuters.com/article/us-germany-autos/germany-to-up-financial-aid-for-cars-sector-government-sources-idUSKBN27X1S7 (Accessed 23 November 2020)

https://www.tagesschau.de/wirtschaft/autogipfel-berlin-103.html (Accessed 23 November 2020)
Germany National Fossil conditional 1 billion EUR for truck scrappage scheme (part of a 3 billion euros renewed pledge by the German Gov... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020111717/11/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To support the development and production of climate-friendly cars as the auto industry grapples with challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and global climate crisis. 17/11/2020 1000000000 This measure refers to the commitment of one billion euros for a scrappage scheme for older trucks to help private logistics companies and municipalities modernise their fleets. The planned premium would be paid when an old truck is scrapped and a brand new one is bought, even if it, too, is diesel-powered. Subsidies for electric- or hydrogen-powered trucks will be still greater, though.

https://de.reuters.com/article/us-germany-autos/germany-to-up-financial-aid-for-cars-sector-government-sources-idUSKBN27X1S7 (Accessed 23 November 2020)

https://www.tagesschau.de/wirtschaft/autogipfel-berlin-103.html (Accessed 23 November 2020)
Germany National Clean conditional 1 billion EUR for electric vehicles (part of a 3 billion euros renewed pledge by the German Governme... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020111717/11/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To support the development and production of climate-friendly cars as the auto industry grapples with challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and global climate crisis 17/11/2020 1000000000 A central element of the scheme is the allocation of 1 billion euros to extend to 2025 a consumer rebate for buying electric cars that had been planned to end next year. Crucially, this includes hybrid cars which have been overwhelmingly opposed by environmental groups. In December 2021, this has been extended to end of 2022.

https://de.reuters.com/article/us-germany-autos/germany-to-up-financial-aid-for-cars-sector-government-sources-idUSKBN27X1S7 (Accessed 23 November 2020)

https://www.tagesschau.de/wirtschaft/autogipfel-berlin-103.html (Accessed 23 November 2020)
Germany National Fossil conditional Tax on greenhouse gas emissions for fuels, heating and gas Multiple sectors Multiple fossil New or extended regulation (IT... 2020100808/10/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To raise retail prices of car fuels such as gasoline and diesel, heating oil and natural gas. 01/01/2021 Germany’s lower house of parliament approved a tax on greenhouses gas emissions to be levied in stages from 2021, raising retail prices of car fuels such as gasoline and diesel, heating oil and natural gas. The move, which entails alterations to a law on fuel emissions trading, envisages a tax of 25 euros ($29.41) per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2021, rising to 55 euros per tonne in 2025. Gasoline prices will rise by 7 cents per litre and by 8 cents per litre for diesel from next year.

https://web.archive.org/web/20201012090616/
https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-germany-co2-tax-idUKKBN26T209 (accessed 12 October 2020)
Germany National Fossil conditional Coal Phase-Out Act underlying Germany’s coal phase out by 2038 Multiple sectors Multiple energy types New or extended regulation (IT... 2020070303/07/2020 Several energy stages Government To phase out lignite power in Germany and assist transition of miners, lignite producing regions and lignite power generators The Coal Phase Out Act (Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze (Kohleausstiegsgesetz)) passed on 3 July 2020 underlies the plan to phase out coal by 2038. According to the Act, coal-fired power production in the country will come to an end no later than 2038. The law paves the way for a EUR 40 billion support programme for the economic transformation of coal regions and legislation to compensate coal plant operators for shutting down capacity. In particular, the Act stipulates that a total of EUR 4.35 billion in compensation will be paid for the planned shutdowns by 2030 (see separate entry in the Tracker). Further, the government would introduce adaptation payments for older workers in lignite mines and hard coal and lignite power plants who lose their jobs due to the coal exit plans, with a budget of up to EUR 5 billion by 2048. The Coal Phase-Out Act was passed 18 months after the issue of multi-stakeholder Coal Exit Commission's recommendations, so it has its roots well before the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis and government responses to it. The European Commission has green-lit the scheme on Wednesday 25 November 2020.

https://www.bundesrat.de/SharedDocs/beratungsvorgaenge/2020/0301-0400/0392-20.html (Accessed 27 July 2020)

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/spelling-out-coal-phase-out-germanys-exit-law-draft (Accessed 27 July 2020)
https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/european-commission-approves-german-hard-coal-exit-tender/ (Accessed 30 November 2020)
Germany National Fossil conditional Compensation package for utilities operating lignite power stations Power generation Coal Budget or off-budget transfer ... 4965753424.6575 2020070303/07/2020 Electricity generation Coal Phase-Out Act/German Government Government To phase out lignite power in Germany and compensate lignite power generators for loss of business 4350000000 The contract that compensates the country’s operators of lignite-fired power plants for an accelerated shutdown of their assets. The deal is part of Germany’s effort to completely wean off coal by no later than 2038 and covers a total of 4.35 billion euros in payments to utilities, which will also waive any rights for future lawsuits if they sign it. RWE and Leag (owned 50-50% owned by Czech energy group EPH and private equity group PPF Investments), are by far the largest operators of lignite, or brown coal, power plants and mines in Germany. The Coal Phase Out Act (Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze (Kohleausstiegsgesetz)) passed on 3 July 2020 (see separate entry) underlies the plan to phase out coal by 2038. The Act stipulates that a total of EUR 4.35 billion in compensation will be paid for the planned shutdowns by 2030. Western German power company RWE will receive EUR 2.6 billion for shutting down its plants by the end of 2029. EUR 1.75 billion will go to operations in the eastern German district Lusatia, run by the Lausitz Energie Kraftwerk AG (LEAG). Part of the money will not go to LEAG itself but to a trustee confirmed by the government. The compensation does not change in case the operators shut down plants earlier than planned. The Coal Phase Out Act was passed 18 months after the issue of multi-stakeholder Coal Exit commission Recommendations, so it has its roots well before the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis and government responses to it. However, this measure is included in the Tracker as a new policy that involves a significant public expenditure. It is classified as "fossil conditional" because, despite the end goal of phasing out coal, it pays the polluters. The law was passed by both chambers of the Parliament on 3 July. As of 28 July, the Coal Phase Out Act was still awaiting signature of the Federal President, upon which it will enter into force the next day.

https://uk.reuters.com/article/germany-coal-compensation/german-government-approves-lignite-compensation-contract-idUKL8N2IV4SI Accessed 4 January 2021

https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-germany-politics-climate-change/german-cabinet-backs-43-billion-euros-for-utilities-over-brown-coal-phase-out-idUKKBN23V21M Accessed 4 January 2021
https://www.bundesrat.de/SharedDocs/beratungsvorgaenge/2020/0301-0400/0392-20.html Accessed 4 January 2021
https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/spelling-out-coal-phase-out-germanys-exit-law-draft Accessed 4 January 2021
Germany National Clean conditional EV infrastracture and E-mobility and battery R&D support Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2853881278.5388 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To expand EV charging infrastructure across the country and ensure the availability of EV charging stations in all regions of the country 03/06/2020 2500000000 The government aims to expand EV charging infrastructure across the country and ensure the availability of EV charging stations in all regions of the country. All petrol stations will be required to offer EV charging points.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Support for auto industry transformation (economic stimulus package) Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105022.8311 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government 03/06/2020 2000000000 The federal government will set up a 2020-2021 bonus program for future investments by vehicle manufacturers and the supply industry. Research and development in transformation-relevant innovations and new regional innovation clusters, especially in the supply industry, will be supported with 1 billion euros in 2020 and 2021. This policy is classified as benefitting oil and oil products since its oriented towards suppliers of parts of internal combustion engine.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Fleet exchange programme for social services, to promote “electromobility” in cities and... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 228310502.28311 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To promote electric mobility in urban traffic and support non-profit organisations in converting their fleets 03/06/2020 200000000 For social services, a "Social & Mobile" fleet exchange programme for 2020-2021 is being set up to promote electric mobility in urban traffic and support non-profit organisations in converting their fleets.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Equity injection into Deutsche Bahn to enable continued investment in railway modernisation, expansi... Mobility Multiple energy types Equity injection or nationalis... 5707762557.0776 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To enable continued investment in railway modernisation, expansion, and electrification, 03/06/2020 5000000000 As part of the Climate Protection Programme 2030, the German government has already decided to invest an additional 1 billion euros per year in Deutsche Bahn from 2020 to 2030. This will enable Deutsche Bahn to invest additional capital in the modernisation, expansion, and electrification of the rail network and the railway system. To be able to achieve this goal, and in view of the corona-related revenue shortfalls, the Federal Government will provide Deutsche Bahn with an additional equity capital of EUR 5 billion.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Bus and truck fleet modernization Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1369863013.6986 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To increase the demand for e-buses and make urban transport more environmentally friendly 03/06/2020 1200000000 The federal government is investing in a "Bus and Truck Fleet Modernization Program", which is open to private and municipal operators alike to promote alternative drive systems. To increase the demand for e-buses and make urban transport more environmentally friendly, funding for e-buses and their charging infrastructure will also be increased for a limited period until the end of 2021.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Support for accelerated conversion to more efficient types of aircraft Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To support accelerated conversion to more efficient types of aircraft 03/06/2020 1000000000 Modern aircraft of the latest design emits up to 30% less CO2 and noise. This policy is meant to support the accelerated conversion to the new types of aircraft.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Modernisation fund for shipping, including traffic innovation and support for renewing government ve... Mobility Oil and gas Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1141552511.4155 2020060303/06/2020 Several energy stages German Government Government To strengthen, modernise, and digitise shipping as a climate-friendly means of transport 03/06/2020 1000000000 This policy is meant to strengthen, modernise and digitise shipping as a climate-friendly means of transport. This includes, among other things, bank rehabilitation, modernisation of locks, replacement of vessels and digital test fields. The innovation support established by the Federal Government in the field of shipping, the Maritime Research Programme, the Land Electricity Support Programme, a new "LNG refuelling vessels support programme", a "fleet renewal programme for government vessels," and a new "Clean Ships Immediate Programme" will be provided with an additional 1 billion euros for projects starting in 2020 and 2021.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=9 Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Clean unconditional Regulatory measures: abolition of cap on fundable maximum capacity for solar; target for offshore wi... Power generation Multiple renewable New or extended regulation (IT... 2020060303/06/2020 Electricity generation German Government Government To further promote the expansion of renewable energies 18/06/2020 To further promote the expansion of renewable energies, the cap on the funding of photovoltaics ("Solardeckel") at a capacity of 52 GW will be abolished immediately. The expansion target for offshore wind power will be raised from 15 to 20 GW in 2030. Regulation for wind turbines (minimum distance of 1,000 meters to next home) will be relaxed. The federal states will be given the opportunity to stipulate lower minimum distances. This also creates an opportunity for local authorities and residents to benefit more from the financial returns of wind power.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 17 June 2020

https://www.carbonbrief.org/coronavirus-tracking-how-the-worlds-green-recovery-plans-aim-to-cut-emissions Accessed 17 June 2020
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-energy-renewables/germany-set-to-remove-green-power-hurdles-at-next-cabinet-meeting-idUSKBN23J1NB Accessed 17 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Bailout of Condor Mobility Oil and oil products Loan guarantee (Hybrid) 627853881.27854 2020042727/04/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) The German government and the Hessian state government Government 27/04/2020 550000000 Condor received a €550m loan guarantee from the federal and Hessian government: €294m as corona-aid and €256m to refinance the bridging loan the airline received following the 2019 bankruptcy of Thomas Cook.

http://condor-newsroom.condor.com/en/de/news-article/condor-federal-government-and-hessian-state-government-pledge-guarantee/ Accessed 22 June 2020

https://www.forbes.com/sites/cathybuyck/2020/04/27/german-leisure-airline-condor-secures-yet-another-government-backed-loan-to-keep-afloat/#56d1acb8305e Accessed 22 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Bailout of TUI AG (including TUI Fly and cruiseships) Multiple sectors Oil and oil products Loan (Hybrid) 5479452054.7945 2020040808/04/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government/ KfW Government 08/04/2020 4800000000 The total government bailout of TUI amounts to EUR 4.8 billion after the announcement in December 2020 of a last package of 1.8 billion euros. this will include 1.3 billion euros from the state - amassed from federal fund WSF, state-run lender KfW and a state debt guarantee -- together with 500 million euros from a shareholder capital increase. Previously, The TUI Group has been granted a loan of €1.8bn for its airline, cruise, hotel, and travel agency operations. For lack of exact breakdown by activity we are assigning the whole amount to oil and oil products as the main fuel for the airline and cruise ships, noting the lack of environmental conditionalities. It was also granted a 1.2 billion euros aid package in August 2020 to provide sufficient liquidity to the tour operator back then.

https://www.tuigroup.com/en-en/media/press-releases/2020/2020-03-27-tui-ag-german-federal-government-approves-kfw-bridge-loan Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.tuigroup.com/en-en/media/press-releases/2020/2020-04-06-kfw-arrangement-signed Accessed 9 July 2020

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/touristik-tui-bekommt-staatshilfe-1.4872675 Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-02/tui-is-poised-to-receive-third-german-bailout-since-virus-hit Accessed 07 December 2020
https://ca.reuters.com/article/idUSASN000APO Accessed 07 December 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Support for public transport within municipal budgets (economic stimulus package) Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2853881278.5388 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government 03/06/2020 2500000000 Covid-19 pandemic has reduced ticket revenues for public transport. The federal government will support the federal states in 2020 with the financing of local public transport through a one-time increase in regionalization funds in 2020.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Clean unconditional Modernization of buildings for energy efficiency (economic stimulus package) Buildings Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105022.8311 2020060303/06/2020 Energy efficiency German Government Government Increase energy efficiency of buildings 03/06/2020 2000000000 Funding for the CO2 building renovation programme will be increased by one billion euros to 2.5 billion euros for 2020 and 2021. The federal government's funding programmes for the energy-efficient renovation of municipal buildings are also being increased and a programme to promote climate adaptation measures in social institutions will be launched.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Clean conditional Premiums doubled for EVs buyers (economic stimulus package) Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2511415525.1142 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen mobility while ensuring more sustainability and climate protection 31/12/2021 2200000000 The state will double the existing premiums for buyers of EVs.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil conditional Introduction of a new vehicles tax based on their CO2 emissions Mobility Oil and oil products Increased fossil fuel taxation 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) German Government Government To strengthen mobility while ensuring more sustainability and climate protection 01/01/2021 0 Starting from January 2021, new registered vehicles will be taxed according to the CO2 emissions per km (for vehicles with emissions above 95g CO2/km). Owners of cars with emissions over 195 grams/km will pay double the surcharge.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Other energy Hydrogen foreign trade partnerships Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105022.8311 2020060303/06/2020 Several energy stages German Government Government To import hydrogen from partnership countries, make their economies less dependent on fossil fuels, and cover Germany’s hydrogen needs 03/06/2020 2000000000 Germany plans to build up hydrogen trade partnerships with countries in which hydrogen can be produced efficiently due to their geographical location. Based on German hydrogen technologies that would be developed in the next years, it is planned to import hydrogen from partnership countries, make their economies less dependent on fossil fuels and cover Germany’s hydrogen needs. Suitable hydrogen storage processes for the global, cost-efficient transport of hydrogen are to be developed. The establishment of a European hydrogen society to promote and develop common international production capacities and infrastructures will be explored and promoted with sufficient European support.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8" Accessed 5 June 2020

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-stimulus/germany-earmarks-7-8-billion-for-hydrogen-strategy-idUSKBN23B10L?il=0 Accessed 5 June 2020
Germany National Clean unconditional National Hydrogen Strategy (part of the economic stimulus package) Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 10273972602.74 2020060303/06/2020 Several energy stages Federal Government/Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy Government To make Germany the world's supplier of state-of-the-art hydrogen technology 03/06/2020 9000000000 The switch from fossil fuels to hydrogen is to be promoted and funded both through investment grants in new plants and a new pilot program to support the operation of electrolysis plants based on the carbon contracts-for-difference approach. Most of the electricity required is to be generated in offshore wind farms and it is planned to build hydrogen power plants with a total output of up to 5 GW by 2030 and 10 GW by 2040. The strategy provides for the creation of a 25-member national hydrogen council made up of people from business, science and civil society. A mandatory quota for aviation fuel and a demand quota for climate-friendly steel will be examined, as well as overall hydrogen infrastructure development. In order for the National Hydrogen Strategy to be implemented, a total of €9 billion has been made available for the coming years. Under the Stimulus and Future Packages adopted in June 2020, €7 billion has been earmarked for funding hydrogen technology in Germany and another €2 billion for promoting international partnerships.

https://www.bmbf.de/files/bmwi_Nationale%20Wasserstoffstrategie_Eng_s01.pdf Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Publikationen/Energie/die-nationale-wasserstoffstrategie.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=12 Accessed 9 July 2020
https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 9 July 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 9 July 2020
Germany National Other energy Reduction in electricity prices for consumers through a cut in the Renewable Energy Act levy/EEG-sur... Power generation Multiple renewable Uncategorized 12557077625.571 2020060303/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government Government Reduce the burden of financing renewables borne by German households and businesses, that already pay some of the highest power prices in Europe. 11000000000 Under the Renewable Energy Act, the EEG-surcharge represents the difference between the wholesale market price for power on the electricity market and the higher fixed remuneration rate for renewable energies. It is estimated for the following year, based on historic and current data. It is paid by all electricity consumers with the exception of energy intensive industries and operators of renewable power plants that use electricity they generate themselves. The EEG surcharge has increased as electricity prices have declined due to increased renewables presence in the market and cheap coal.

https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/2020-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8 Accessed 4 June 2020

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/germany-gives-energy-transition-some-extra-boost-economic-stimulus-programme Accessed 4 June 2020
Germany National Fossil unconditional Lufthansa bailout Mobility Oil and oil products Equity injection or nationalis... 10273972602.74 2020062525/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government and KfW Government To keep the struggling airline aloft 9000000000 Lufthansa will receive a EUR 9 billion bailout in exchange for the state taking a 20% share in the airline company. This deal has been approved by Lufthansa stakeholders.

https://www.dw.com/en/lufthansa-bailout-package-overwhelmingly-backed-by-shareholders/a-53936823 Accessed 2 July 2020