The Netherlands

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, The Netherlands has committed at least USD 45.41 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • Some public money committed for unconditional fossil fuels (3 policies with the value of public money unquantified)
  • At least USD 6.18 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • No public money commitments identified for unconditional clean energy
  • At least USD 4.99 billion for conditional clean energy through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 34.25 billion for other energy through 2 policies (1 quantified and 1 unquantified)

By energy type, The Netherlands committed at least USD 3.90 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 3.90 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, some public money committed for coal (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, The Netherlands committed at least USD 2.28 billion to multiple fossil fuels (at least USD 2.28 billion to conditional multiple fossil fuels).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of The Netherlands through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

More information on key poverty and inequality indicators in The Netherlands can be found on the Inequality and Poverty Dashboard page.

Updated: 22 June 2022


At least

$6.18 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$356.59

Per capita



At least

$4.99 billion

Supporting clean energy

$287.68

Per capita

The Netherlands

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, The Netherlands has committed at least USD 45.41 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • Some public money committed for unconditional fossil fuels (3 policies with the value of public money unquantified)
  • At least USD 6.18 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • No public money commitments identified for unconditional clean energy
  • At least USD 4.99 billion for conditional clean energy through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 34.25 billion for other energy through 2 policies (1 quantified and 1 unquantified)

By energy type, The Netherlands committed at least USD 3.90 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 3.90 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, some public money committed for coal (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, The Netherlands committed at least USD 2.28 billion to multiple fossil fuels (at least USD 2.28 billion to conditional multiple fossil fuels).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of The Netherlands through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

More information on key poverty and inequality indicators in The Netherlands can be found on the Inequality and Poverty Dashboard page.

$ %

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in The Netherlands recovery packages since January 2020, USD billion, as of 22 June 2022

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
The Netherlands Hengelo Fossil conditional Commission approves €14.3 million Dutch aid to support a carbon capture and use facility Other sector Gas and gas products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 16324200.913242 2021073030/07/2021 Reduced environmental damage European Commission Government The aim of the measure is to increase environmental protection by reducing the use of primary energy sources for conventional forms of CO2 generation for horticultural processes and therefore reducing CO2 emissions linked to these processes. 30/07/2021 14300000 The European Commission has found a €14.3 million Dutch investment aid to TWENCE HOLDING BV to build a carbon capture and use facility to be in line with EU State aid rules. The project will enable the removal of CO2 from flue gases at the company’s waste-to-energy installation facility located at Hengelo, in the Netherlands. The captured liquid CO2 will be used primarily by greenhouses in the horticultural sector, where it is to be used to enhance crop growth. The investment project relates to the capturing process and equipment of the liquefied CO2 and not to its transport. The aim of the measure is to increase environmental protection by reducing the use of primary energy sources for conventional forms of CO2 generation for horticultural processes and therefore reducing CO2 emissions linked to these processes. In addition, the measure aims at re-using CO2 and contributing to the development of sustainable and circular product chains for the reutilization and application of CO2. The intended investment aid of around €14.3 million would represent 37% of the eligible investment costs of the project.

https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/state-aid-commission-approves-eu143-million-dutch-aid-support-carbon-capture-and-use-facility-2021-jul-30_en
The Netherlands Rotterdam port area/ North Sea Fossil conditional Dutch government grants €2 billion in subsidies to carbon storage project Power generation Multiple fossil Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105022.8311 2021050909/05/2021 Reduced environmental damage Dutch government Government Reduce emissions in the industrial cluster surrounding Rotterdam by around 10% 09/05/2021 2000000000 The Dutch government has granted a consortium that includes oil majors Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil around €2 billion in subsidies for what is set to become one of the largest carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects in the world. Shell and Exxon requested the subsidies in January together with industrial gas suppliers Air Liquide and Air Products for a project which aims to capture CO2 emitted by factories and refineries in the Rotterdam port area and store it in empty Dutch gas fields in the North Sea. The project is set to become operational in 2024 and is expected to reduce emissions in the industrial cluster surrounding Europe’s largest sea port by around 10%. The subsidies are meant to compensate the companies for the extra costs of capturing the greenhouse gasses instead of emitting them, while the port will provide the necessary infrastructure to transport the carbon dioxide to the empty offshore gas fields.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/dutch-government-grants-e2-billion-in-subsidies-to-huge-carbon-storage-project/
The Netherlands National Clean conditional Scale-up of public transport infrastructure – €2.5 billion Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2888127853.8813 2021040909/04/2021 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government "The government is injecting €646 million into and setting aside €3.5 billion for ten projects designed to ensure greater economic growth in the Netherlands. The government intends to invest these sums, which will be allocated from the National Growth Fund, in green hydrogen, innovative and future-proof education methods and the extension of Amsterdam's North-South metro line, among other things. In awarding grants to these projects, the government is adopting the recommendation issued by the proposal assessment advisory committee led by Jeroen Dijsselbloem in full. The news was announced by the Ministers Van 't Wout (Economic Affairs and Climate Policy) and Hoekstra (Finance). The advisory committee advised the government to allocate €646 million from the National Growth Fund at once (although some of the allocations are subject to conditions). Furthermore, it advised that €3.5 billion be earmarked for proposals whose funding is contingent on the applicants supplying more detailed information. The National Growth Fund is intended for one-off public investment that contributes to the country's future economic growth. The projects that will be granted funding will all result in increased productivity and create new business, the committee found, partly based on analyses performed by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis and other experts" 09/04/2021 2530000000 The Dutch government has earmarked a total of EUR 2.5 billion for 3 public transport infrastructure projects: (1) Expansion of metropolitan public transport system and Southern Randstad urbanization; (2) Expansion of the MRA metropolitan public transport system and urbanization; (3) Eindhoven Brainport line
The Netherlands National Clean conditional Scale-up of green hydrogen and green electrons in the manufacturing industry – €338 million Power generation Multiple renewable Budget or off-budget transfer ... 385844748.85845 2021040909/04/2021 Exploration or production or processing or storage or transportation Dutch government Government The public investment should create a strong and flexible hydrogen ecosystem that will form the basis for the scaling-up of hydrogen and electrochemistry. Industrial clusters that may present us with opportunities in this regard are situated in the northern provinces of the Netherlands, Amsterdam, Rotterdam/Moerdijk, Zeeland, Arnhem, Brainport Eindhoven and Limburg (Chemelot). 09/04/2021 338000000 The Groenvermogen (“green power”) proposal, which is designed to scale up the use of hydrogen and green electrons in energy-intensive components of the manufacturing industry, was awarded a portion (€338 million) of the requested amount of funding. The proposal concerns a fully integrated approach taken by companies, government agencies and knowledge institutions active in this sector, including a comprehensive and coherent research and innovation program and an education agenda. Moreover, the development may go a long way towards helping the Netherlands meet its requirements under the Paris Agreement.

https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-economic-affairs-and-climate-policy/news/2021/04/21/innovative-projects-given-additional-%E2%82%AC1.35-billion-boost-due-to-funding-from-national-growth-fund
G
https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-economic-affairs-and-climate-policy/news/2021/04/21/government-allocates-%E2%82%AC646-million-to-projects-designed-to-boost-economic-growth
The Netherlands National Other energy EU Commission approves €30 billion in state aid to Dutch scheme to support projects reducing green... Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 34246575342.466 2020121414/12/2020 Several energy stages European Commission Government To support projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 30000000000 The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €30 billion Dutch scheme to support projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands. The scheme (Stimulering Duurzame Energieproductie, “SDE++”) will contribute to the EU environmental objectives without unduly distorting competition. The Netherlands notified the Commission of their plans to introduce a new scheme, the SDE++ to support a range of projects aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands. The SDE++, with an estimated total budget of around €30 billion, will run until 2025. The scheme will be open to projects based on renewable electricity, gas and heat, the use of industrial waste heat and heat pumps, the electrification of industrial heat processes and electrification of hydrogen production, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) for industrial processes, including hydrogen production and waste incineration. Beneficiaries will be selected, the support level set, and the aid allocated, through competitive bidding processes. The beneficiaries will receive support via a variable premium contract of the duration of up to 15 years. The payments beneficiaries receive will be adjusted based on the evolution of the relevant market price (for example, electricity, gas, carbon) over the lifetime of the support contract.

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2410 (accessed 14 Dec 2020)
The Netherlands National Clean conditional Compensation to cover losses made by public transport companies due to Corona Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1712328767.1233 2020060505/06/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Compensating public transport companies for losses made due to reduced travel because of Corona 05/06/2020 31/12/2020 1500000000 The government is compensating public transport companies for losses they made due to reduced travel due to Corona

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/05/financiele-regeling-voor-ov-bedrijven Accessed 28 September 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Tax deferral on almost entirely CO2-based passenger cars and motorcycles tax Mobility Oil and oil products Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Car owners and corporations benefit from a deferral for a CO2-based tax for passenger cars and motorcycles. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/belastingmaatregelen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Other energy Tax deferral on sustainable energy surcharge Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Corporations benefit from a tax deferral for the sustainable energy surcharge. This is a surcharge that is normally levied over energy use (both fossil and renewable, but primarily fossil since fossil fuels still make up 90% of primary energy in the Netherlands) and for which the revenues are earmarked for investments in the energy transition. It is unclear when the deferred taxes need to be repaid. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/belastingmaatregelen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Environmental tax deferral (coal tax) Multiple sectors Coal Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Coal users (industry and utilities) benefit from deferred coal taxes. It is unclear when the deferred taxes need to be repaid. Even prior to COVID-19 multiple exemptions applied to the coal tax. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.

https://www.belastingdienst.nl/wps/wcm/connect/nl/ondernemers/content/bijzonder-uitstel-van-betaling-vanwege-coronacrisis Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Environmental tax deferral (energy tax) Multiple sectors Multiple fossil Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Corporations benefit from a tax deferral for the energy tax, available for the months of April till October. Businesses have to repay the deferred tax in December. The total costs of all tax deferrals (including this one) are estimated at 32 billion euros in 2020 (4.3% of GDP). Total public guarantee schemes are estimated at 30.6 billion euros in 2020 (4% of GDP). The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/energiebelastingen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil conditional KLM loan and loan guarantee Mobility Oil and oil products Other hybrid support measures 3881278538.8128 2020042424/04/2020 Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Preventing KLM from going bankrupt 26/06/2020 3400000000 The only environmental condition for the bailout is that KLM will reduce its night flights from Schiphol by 20%, from 32 thousand to 25 thousand per year. KLM also has to comply with already existing requirements to emit 50% less CO2 per passenger by 2030 and that 14 percent of used fuels should be sustainable. The emission reduction goal was set by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and thus nothing additional to what was already agreed. The 14% sustainable fuels objective was already adopted earlier this year in a Dutch Draft Sustainable Aviation Agreement.

https://nltimes.nl/2020/06/26/klm-get-eu34-billion-coronavirus-support-package-20-schiphol-night-flights-cut
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/26/kabinet-biedt-financiele-steun-aan-klm-als-gevolg-van-de-coronacrisis
https://www.greenpeace.org/nl/klimaatverandering/41983/rechtszaak-tegen-34-miljard-staatssteun-voor-klm/ Accessed 6 July 2020
https://nos.nl/artikel/2331722-miljardensteun-voor-klm-maar-hoe-belangrijk-is-de-luchtvaartmaatschappij.html Accessed 6 July 2020
https://news.klm.com/klm-grateful-for-2-4-billion-in-state-aid-pledged-by-dutch-government/ Accessed 6 July 2020

https://web.archive.org/web/20200425173402/
https://nos.nl/artikel/2331722-miljardensteun-voor-klm-maar-hoe-belangrijk-is-de-luchtvaartmaatschappij.html Accessed 6 July 2020