The Netherlands

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, The Netherlands has committed at least USD 5.40 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • Some public money committed for unconditional fossil fuels (3 policies with the value of public money unquantified)
  • At least USD 3.74 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 1 policy (1 quantified)
  • No public money commitments identified for unconditional clean energy
  • At least USD 1.65 billion for conditional clean energy through 1 policy (1 quantified)
  • Some public money committed for other energy (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified)
Updated: 25 November 2020


At least

$3.74 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$216.03

Per capita



At least

$1.65 billion

Supporting clean energy

$95.31

Per capita

By energy type, The Netherlands committed at least USD 3.74 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 3.74 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, some public money committed for coal (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, some public money committed for multiple fossil fuels (1 policy with the value of public money unquantified).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of The Netherlands through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in recovery packages, USD billion, as of 25 November 2020

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Policy type Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value as stated (specify currency) Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
The Netherlands National Clean conditional Compensation to cover losses made by public transport companies due to Corona Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1651982378.8546 2020060505/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Compensating public transport companies for losses made due to reduced travel because of Corona 05/06/2020 31/12/2020 EUR 1.5 billion 1500000000 The government is compensating public transport companies for losses they made due to reduced travel due to Corona
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/05/financiele-regeling-voor-ov-bedrijven Accessed 28 September 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Tax deferral on almost entirely CO2-based passenger cars and motorcycles tax Mobility Oil and oil products Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Car owners and corporations benefit from a deferral for a CO2-based tax for passenger cars and motorcycles. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/belastingmaatregelen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Other energy Tax deferral on sustainable energy surcharge Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Corporations benefit from a tax deferral for the sustainable energy surcharge. This is a surcharge that is normally levied over energy use (both fossil and renewable, but primarily fossil since fossil fuels still make up 90% of primary energy in the Netherlands) and for which the revenues are earmarked for investments in the energy transition. It is unclear when the deferred taxes need to be repaid. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/belastingmaatregelen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Environmental tax deferral (coal tax) Multiple sectors Coal Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Coal users (industry and utilities) benefit from deferred coal taxes. It is unclear when the deferred taxes need to be repaid. Even prior to COVID-19 multiple exemptions applied to the coal tax. The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.
https://www.belastingdienst.nl/wps/wcm/connect/nl/ondernemers/content/bijzonder-uitstel-van-betaling-vanwege-coronacrisis Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil unconditional Environmental tax deferral (energy tax) Multiple sectors Multiple fossil Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020031717/03/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Lowering operational costs for businesses 01/04/2020 31/12/2020 Corporations benefit from a tax deferral for the energy tax, available for the months of April till October. Businesses have to repay the deferred tax in December. The total costs of all tax deferrals (including this one) are estimated at 32 billion euros in 2020 (4.3% of GDP). Total public guarantee schemes are estimated at 30.6 billion euros in 2020 (4% of GDP). The measure was initially approved in March 2020 and its application further extended in August 2020.
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-financiele-regelingen/overzicht-financiele-regelingen/energiebelastingen Accessed 16 June 2020
The Netherlands National Fossil conditional KLM loan and loan guarantee Mobility Oil and oil products Other hybrid support measures 3744493392.0705 2020042424/04/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Dutch government Government Preventing KLM from going bankrupt 26/06/2020 EUR 3.4 billion: 1 billion direct loan + 2.4 billion loan guarantees 3400000000 The only environmental condition for the bailout is that KLM will reduce its night flights from Schiphol by 20%, from 32 thousand to 25 thousand per year. KLM also has to comply with already existing requirements to emit 50% less CO2 per passenger by 2030 and that 14 percent of used fuels should be sustainable. The emission reduction goal was set by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and thus nothing additional to what was already agreed. The 14% sustainable fuels objective was already adopted earlier this year in a Dutch Draft Sustainable Aviation Agreement.
https://nltimes.nl/2020/06/26/klm-get-eu34-billion-coronavirus-support-package-20-schiphol-night-flights-cut
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/26/kabinet-biedt-financiele-steun-aan-klm-als-gevolg-van-de-coronacrisis
https://www.greenpeace.org/nl/klimaatverandering/41983/rechtszaak-tegen-34-miljard-staatssteun-voor-klm/ Accessed 6 July 2020
https://nos.nl/artikel/2331722-miljardensteun-voor-klm-maar-hoe-belangrijk-is-de-luchtvaartmaatschappij.html Accessed 6 July 2020
https://news.klm.com/klm-grateful-for-2-4-billion-in-state-aid-pledged-by-dutch-government/ Accessed 6 July 2020

https://web.archive.org/web/20200425173402/
https://nos.nl/artikel/2331722-miljardensteun-voor-klm-maar-hoe-belangrijk-is-de-luchtvaartmaatschappij.html Accessed 6 July 2020