Italy

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, Italy has committed at least USD 5.32 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 3.84 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (2 quantified and 3 unquantified)
  • At least USD 408.68 million for conditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 349.66 million for unconditional clean energy through 8 policies (4 quantified and 4 unquantified)
  • At least USD 150.68 million for conditional clean energy through 6 policies (2 quantified and 4 unquantified)
  • At least USD 570.78 million for other energy through 1 policy (1 quantified)

By energy type, Italy committed at least USD 3.48 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 3.42 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 57.08 million to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, no public money commitments identified for coal.

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, Italy committed at least USD 410.96 million to multiple fossil fuels (at least USD 410.96 million to unconditional multiple fossil fuels).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of Italy through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Updated: 7 April 2021


At least

$4.24 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$70.39

Per capita



At least

$500.34 million

Supporting clean energy

$8.30

Per capita

Italy

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, Italy has committed at least USD 5.32 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 3.84 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (2 quantified and 3 unquantified)
  • At least USD 408.68 million for conditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 349.66 million for unconditional clean energy through 8 policies (4 quantified and 4 unquantified)
  • At least USD 150.68 million for conditional clean energy through 6 policies (2 quantified and 4 unquantified)
  • At least USD 570.78 million for other energy through 1 policy (1 quantified)

By energy type, Italy committed at least USD 3.48 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 3.42 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 57.08 million to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, no public money commitments identified for coal.

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, Italy committed at least USD 410.96 million to multiple fossil fuels (at least USD 410.96 million to unconditional multiple fossil fuels).

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of Italy through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in recovery packages, USD billion, as of 7 April 2021

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Policy type Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value as stated (specify currency) Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
Italy National Clean conditional Extension for agro-energy incentives Other sector Biofuels and waste Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2021022626/02/2021 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Work and Social Policy (Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali) Government To promote the key role of the agricultural sector, in particular the agroenergy, for energy transition 26/02/2021 Incentives for the construction of bio-gas plants. Also for 2021, farms that build biogas plants of up to 300 KW, fuelled by by-products from livestock farming, will continue to have access to incentives for electricity produced from renewable sources other than photovoltaics.

https://www.lavoro.gov.it/notizie/pagine/in-gazzetta-ufficiale-la-legge-di-conversione-del-decreto-milleproroghe.aspx/ (Accessed 3 March 2021)

https://energiaoltre.it/milleproroghe-proroga-stop-trivelle-fine-mercato-tutelato-e-deposito-nucleare/ (Accessed 3 March 2021)
Italy Regional: Lombardia Clean conditional Lombardy Region incentives for electric outlets Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2283105.0228311 2021021515/02/2021 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Lombardy Regional Government Government To sustain the renewal of the polluting vehicle fleet in the Lombardy Region 01/03/2021 EUR 2 million 2000000 Non-repayable grants over two years, of which 2 million in 2021 and 3 million in 2022, to support authorities set up electric vehicle charging infrastructure. There are two lines of action: one to set up recharging points for the Public Administration's fleets of electric vehicles (both owned and rented), the other to set up recharging points in public areas for vehicles owned by citizens.

https://www.milanotoday.it/green/5-milioni-regione-colonnine-elettriche.html (Accessed 3 March 2021)
Italy Regional: Lombardia Fossil conditional Lombardy Region incentives for the purchase of environmentally friendly cars Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 20547945.205479 2021021111/02/2021 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Lombardy Regional Government Government To support the renewal of the polluting vehicle fleet in the Lombardy Region. 11/02/2021 EUR 18 million 18000000 The regional incentives can be cumulated to the State incentives. Pure electric or hydrogen-powered vehicles can receive a contribution of up to €8,000 (that is halved without scrapping). For all other environment-friendly vehicle categories, scrapping is compulsory. The contribution is granted directly by the seller/dealer, who then receives the reimbursement from the Region. Here a detail of the contribution: - 8,000 euro for zero-emission cars (e.g. pure electric or hydrogen); 4,000 euro (without scrapping); - 5,000 euro for cars with CO2 emissions ≤60 g/km and NOx ≤ 85.8 mg/km (e.g. euro 6D petrol, methane, LPG or hybrids); - 4,000 euros for cars with CO2 emissions ≤60 g/km and NOx ≤ 126 mg/km (e.g. euro 6D-Temp petrol, methane, LPG or hybrids or euro 6D diesel); - 4,000 euros for cars with CO2 emissions between 61 and 110 g/km and with NOx ≤ 85.8 mg/km (e.g. euro 6D petrol, methane, LPG or hybrids). - 3,000 euros for cars with CO2 emissions between 61 and 110 g/km and NOx ≤ 126 mg/km (e.g. euro 6D-Temp petrol, natural gas, LPG or hybrids or euro 6D diesel) - 3,000 euros with CO2 emissions between 111 and 145 g/km and NOx ≤ 85.8 mg/km (e.g. Euro 6D petrol, natural gas, LPG or hybrid) - 2,000 euros with CO2 emissions between 111 and 145 g/km and NOx ≤ 126 mg/km (e.g. euro 6D-Temp petrol, natural gas, LPG or hybrids or euro 6D diesel).

https://www.bandi.regione.lombardia.it/procedimenti/new/bandi/bandi/trasporti-infrastrutture/mobilita-trasporti-sostenibili/cittadini-rinnova-autovetture-motoveicoli-2021-RLT12021017442 (Accessed 3 March 2021)

https://www.bandi.regione.lombardia.it/procedimenti/new/bandi/bandi/trasporti-infrastrutture/mobilita-trasporti-sostenibili/cittadini-rinnova-autovetture-motoveicoli-2021-RLT12021017442 (Accessed 3 March 2021)
Italy National Fossil unconditional Moratorium on fossil fuels drilling Resources Oil and gas New or extended regulation (IT... 2021022626/02/2021 Other Exploration or production or processing or storage or transportation Ministry of Work and Social Policy (Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali) Government Drafting of an Energy Transition Plan to address in an organic way the issue of fossil fuels drilling. 03/03/2021 The freeze on new drilling concessions has been reformulated and extended, shifting to September 30th 2021 the deadline for approval of the new Sustainable Energy Transition Plan for eligible areas, to which the suspension of authorisation procedures is linked.

https://www.lavoro.gov.it/notizie/pagine/in-gazzetta-ufficiale-la-legge-di-conversione-del-decreto-milleproroghe.aspx/ (Accessed 3 March 2021)

https://energiaoltre.it/milleproroghe-proroga-stop-trivelle-fine-mercato-tutelato-e-deposito-nucleare/ (Accessed 3 March 2021)
Italy National Fossil conditional Extra bonus: Incentives for the purchase of Euro 6 vehicles, with Co2 emissions between 61 e 135 g/K... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 331050228.3105 2020121717/12/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economic Development (MISE) Government To support the automotive sector. 01/01/2021 EUR 290 million 290000000 This is an incentive of up to 2,000 euros for those who scrap their old car and buy a new one instead. The extra bonus has been approved in 2020 as part of the Decreto Rilancio and extended to 2021

https://ecobonus.mise.gov.it/ (Accessed 8 March 2021)

https://www.motorionline.com/2020/12/16/incentivi-auto-2021-proroga-ibride-elettriche-euro-6/ (Accessed 2 March 2021)
Italy National Clean conditional Extra bonus: Hybrid and electric vehicles incentives Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 148401826.48402 2020121717/12/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economic Development (MISE) Government To support the automotive sector and promote eco-friendly alternatives to public transport. 01/01/2021 EUR 130 million 130000000 This is an incentive of up to 10,000 euros for those who scrap their old car and buy a new one instead. In particular the incentive, that has been extended also through 2021, it is valid for the purchase of hybrid and electric vehicles incentives

https://ecobonus.mise.gov.it/ (Accessed 8 March 2021)

https://www.motorionline.com/2020/12/16/incentivi-auto-2021-proroga-ibride-elettriche-euro-6/ (Accessed 2 March 2021)
Italy Municipality: Bologna Clean unconditional Financing of Green projects in the Municipality of Bologna through the React-EU funds Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 62785388.127854 2020120505/12/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Bologna municipal government Government Implementation of green projects especially in three major areas: mobility, school buildings, inclusion. 01/12/2020 EUR 55 million 55000000 Bologna municipality has applied for European funds for another 55 million to finance 16 green projects especially in three major areas: mobility, school buildings, inclusion. Some of these are: cycle paths, 3 million euros. Emergency cycle lanes and pedestrianisation, 500,000 euros. Eco-sustainable means of transport, €1 million. Construction of three new kindergartens and expansion of a primary school with energy efficiency and minimal environmental impact, with photovoltaic and solar panels: 7.8 million euros. These are just some of the 16 new projects worth €55 million to be funded by React-EU.

https://gazzettadibologna.it/varieta-politiche/bologna-chiede-alleuropa-altri-55-milioni-per-far-finanziare-16-progetti-green/ (Accessed 2 March 2021)

http://www.comune.bologna.it/news/progetti-fondi-europei-recovery-bologna (Accessed 2 March 2021)
Italy National Clean unconditional Superbonus 110% Multiple sectors Other renewable Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020051919/05/2020 Fiscal Energy efficiency Italian Government Government To increase to 110% of the deduction recognized for certain interventions of energy efficiency, reduction of seismic risk, installation of photovoltaic systems and columns for charging electric vehicles. 17/07/2020 31/12/2021 The so-called Decreto Rilancio includes the tax deduction of 110% of the expenses incurred for energy efficiency and seismic risk reduction in Italy. The superbonus will be valid for expenses incurred from 1st July 2020 until 31st December 2021. The 110% deduction can be recovered in 5 equal annual instalments.

https://www.agenziaentrate.gov.it/portale/documents/20143/233439/Guida%20%20Superbonus%20110.pdf/49b34dd3-429e-6891-4af4-c0f0b9f2be69 (accessed 5 October 2020)
Italy National Fossil unconditional Doubling up in 2021 compared to 2020 of the resources provided to municipalities for improving safet... Buildings Multiple fossil Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020080808/08/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government To improve construction safety standards while supporting the construction sector The so-called Decreto Agosto includes the Italian government commitment to double up the resources provided to municipalities for upgrading and improving safety standards in costruction projects in 2021 compared to 2020. The economic support does not seem to be conditional to any forms of environmental standards. The total amount of such support and its other details are not clear yet.

http://www.governo.it/it/articolo/comunicato-stampa-del-consiglio-dei-ministri-n-61/15056 Accessed 11 August 2020
Italy National Clean conditional Resources to support local public transport systems (part of the Decreto Agosto) Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020080808/08/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government To support public transport at municipal level The so-called Decreto Agosto includes some economic support measures to local public transport systems; however, the total amount of such support and its other details are not clear yet.

http://www.governo.it/it/articolo/comunicato-stampa-del-consiglio-dei-ministri-n-61/15056 Accessed 11 August 2020
Italy National Fossil unconditional 180m euros per year over two years in tax credits for the tourist sector to refurbish and upgrade bu... Buildings Multiple fossil Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 410958904.10959 2020080808/08/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government To support the tourist sector, badly hit by the COVID 19 crisis EUR 360 million 360000000 The measure is part of the so-called Decreto Agosto. It is aimed at supporting the tourism sector by providing tax credits to those in the sector who undertake buildings and structures refurbishment or upgrades. The package represents a yearly commitment of 180m euros for 2020 and 2021, and covers up to 65% of the refurbishment costs. The access to the tax credit does not appear to be conditional to any environmental standards.

http://www.governo.it/it/articolo/comunicato-stampa-del-consiglio-dei-ministri-n-61/15056 Accessed 11 August 2020
Italy National Other energy Additional 500m euros incentives for the purchase of new, low CO2 emissions cars (part of the Decret... Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 570776255.70776 2020080808/08/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Italian Government Government To support the automotive sector, badly hit by the COVID 19 crisis EUR 500 million 500000000 This new measure, introduced as part of the so-called Decreto Agosto, represents a further commitment to incentivise the automotive sector as already started with the Decreto Rilancio. Incentives vary between 1,500 and 1,750 euros depending on the efficiency of the purchased car. The decree mentions that 90 out of the 500 millions should be directed to support installation of charging infrastructures for electric vehicles; however, no further details are provided about that.

http://www.governo.it/it/articolo/comunicato-stampa-del-consiglio-dei-ministri-n-61/15056 Accessed 11 August 2020

https://quifinanza.it/soldi/decreto-agosto-500-milioni-incentivi-novita/406296/ Accessed 11 August 2020
Italy National Clean unconditional Government incentive for energy efficiency and sustainable development in small towns Multiple sectors Multiple renewable Budget or off-budget transfer ... 42808219.178082 2020070202/07/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Italian Government Government To improve the energy efficiency of public buildings, energy production from renewable sources and sustainable transportation. 37500000 Allocation of resources in favour of the Italian municipalities for the realisation of projects relating to energy efficiency measures and sustainable territorial development. These grants, with a value of EUR 19,329.89 each, are available to all the municipalities with less than 1,000 inhabitants (1940 municipalities in total).

https://www.mise.gov.it/index.php/it/incentivi/energia/comuni-progetti-di-efficientamento-energetico-e-sviluppo-territoriale-sotto-ai-mille-abitanti Accessed 4 August 2020
Italy National Clean conditional Government incentive of up to 10,000 euros for electric and hybrid vehicles, as amendment of “... Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020070202/07/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Italian Government Government To promote eco-friendly alternatives to public transport This measure consists in a temporary increase in subsidies for electric and hybrid vehicles. The increase will apply from 1 August until the end of this year for electric and hybrid vehicles up to a gross list price of 61,000 euros. Specifically, purely electric vehicles will be subsidised with 6,000 euros instead of the previous 4,000 euros. Anyone who scraps their old combustion engine in connection with the purchase of the electric vehicle will even receive 10,000 euros (previously 6,000 euros).

http://images.go.wolterskluwer.com/Web/WoltersKluwer/%7B4b7e7413-13f5-46dc-b2a5-4bf2aad6f443%7D_conversione-decreto-legge-34-2020-testo-approvato-camera-deputati.pdf Accessed 16 July 2020

https://www.electrive.com/2020/07/14/italy-increases-electric-vehicle-subsidies/ Accessed 16 July 2020
Italy Florence Clean unconditional Plan for the Phase 2 mobility in Florence Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020042828/04/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Florence municipal government Government Primary: reorganization the management of public transport Secondary: providing a a strong boost to sustainable alternative mobility and sharing mobility The council of Florence has proposed various incentives for green mobility (walking/cycling), including recognition of travel time as part of the working time, the release of an anti-theft kit for the bicycles, a direct monetary contribution and the scrapping of vehicles in favor of the purchase of pedal-assisted bicycles.

https://www.comune.fi.it/dalle-redazioni/piano-della-mobilita?language_content_entity=it Accessed 7 July 2020
Italy Rome Clean unconditional Extraordinary mobility plan in Rome Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 4337899.543379 2020050202/05/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Rome municipal government Government The main goal is to encourage active and sustainable mobility in Phase 2 of the health emergency. The cycling routes will provide a valid alternative to the use of a private car, especially in short journeys, also integrated with public transport, quickly creating an interconnected network of cycle lanes. EUR 3,800,000 3800000 The extraordinary plan for a post lockdown mobility includes the construction of 150 km of new cycle routes on the main streets of the city and on other strategic itineraries.

https://www.comune.roma.it/web/it/notizia/fase-2-al-via-piano-straordinario-per-realizzare-150-chilometri-di-nuove-ciclabili.page Accessed 7 July 2020

https://www.bikeitalia.it/2020/05/01/roma-sul-piatto-38-milioni-per-150-km-di-nuove-corsie-ciclabili-nella-fase-2/ Accessed 7 July 2020
Italy Turin Clean unconditional New mobility (cycling/walking) plan in Turin Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020042929/04/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Turin municipal government Government The main goal is the safety and health of people. Among other intentions there is a focus on slow and sustainable mobility (walking and cycling) in order to generate more space on public transportation. The 'big mobility plan' in Turin foresees 80 km of cycle paths, 30 new stations of the bike sharing service (TOBike), 2,000 pedal-assisted bikes, 408 new charging stations for electric vehicles, 7,500 vehicles for sharing, an increase of public transportation services and a 40% increase in public transport during peak hours (compared to the Phase 1 of lockdown).

https://www.chiaraappendino.it/fase-2-il-grande-piano-per-la-mobilita-di-torino/ Accessed 7 July 2020
Italy National Fossil conditional Amendment to the Decreto Rilancio including up to 2,000 euros incentive for the purchase of a new ca... Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 57077625.570776 2020070303/07/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Italian government Government Primary: supporting the car industry 01/08/2020 50 million euros 50000000 This measure is an economic incentive of up to 2,000 euros for those who scrap their old car and buy a new one instead. The indicated amount of 50 million euros for 2020 includes the incentive for electric vehicles but no breakdown is provided in the official documents.

https://www.innovationpost.it/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Ultimi-Emendamenti-approvati-DL-Rilancio.pdf (Accessed 7 July 2020)

https://www.electrive.com/2020/07/14/italy-increases-electric-vehicle-subsidies/ (Accessed 20 December 2020)
Italy National Clean unconditional Government incentive of up to 500 euros for people living in cities who buy a new bike or electric s... Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 239726027.39726 2020051414/05/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Italian government Government To promote eco-friendly alternatives to public transport. 03/11/2020 EUR 210 million 210000000 The government will pay people living in urban areas with 50,000 residents or more 60% of the cost of a new bike or electric scooter and up to €500 as part of efforts to promote eco-friendly alternatives to public transport in the wake of the coronavirus.

https://www.thelocal.it/20200514/italy-offers-city-dwellers-up-to-500-to-buy-a-new-bike Accessed 7 July 2020
Italy Milan Clean unconditional Introduction in Milan of an ambitious cycling/walking scheme Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2020050101/05/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Milan municipal government Government Primary: Protect the health of residents and overcome the Covid-19 pandemic. Secondary: Keep people safe in the future and build more sustainable cities. This cycling/walking scheme is among Europe’s most ambitious cycling and walking schemes, with 22 miles of streets to be transformed over the summer.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/may/01/city-leaders-aim-to-shape-green-recovery-from-coronavirus-crisis 7 July 2020
Italy National Fossil unconditional “Decreto Rilancio” – Economic recovery and investment plan – reduction of ta... Mobility Oil and oil products Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020051414/05/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Italian government Government 01/01/2021 As part of the wider Decreto Rilancio, the so-called "safeguard clauses" which automatically increase the rates of value added tax and those relating to excise duty on certain fuel products are eliminated, starting from 1 January 2021.

http://www.mef.gov.it/focus/Decreto-Rilancio-le-misure-per-rimettere-in-moto-il-Paese/#cont4 Accessed 11 June 2020
Italy National Clean conditional “Decreto Rilancio” – Economy recovery and investment plan – tax deduction fo... Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020051414/05/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Italian government Government Primary: Increasing private investments in energy efficiency retrofits, photovoltaic systems and electric vehicles. This measure is part of a wider EUR 155 billion economic recovery package (Decreto Rilancio).Among the different measures envisaged, there is a tax deduction at 110% of the costs for the energy and/or seismic refurbishment with the possibility of transferring the relative tax credit. It applies to works for thermal insulation and other energy efficiency measures. The interventions also include those for the reduction of seismic risk (sismabonus) and related to the installation of photovoltaic systems and columns for charging electric vehicles. It is still not clear if the scheme will demand a specific energy efficency improvement/goal for the buildings to achieve.

http://www.mef.gov.it/focus/Decreto-Rilancio-le-misure-per-rimettere-in-moto-il-Paese/#cont4 Accessed 11 June 2020

https://www.corteconti.it/Download?id=89684b0a-9c96-4e29-90f4-446858b94e9d Accessed 11 June 2020
Italy National Fossil unconditional Alitalia (national carrier) nationalisation Mobility Oil and oil products Equity injection or nationalis... 3424657534.2466 2020051919/05/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Italian government Government Primary: Improving the financial situation of Alitalia Secondary: Protecting jobs EUR 3,000,000,000 3000000000 Alitalia has undergone 3 failed restructuring attempts and has not been doing well financially, even before C-19. The objective of the nationalisation is to also protect jobs and the aim is to also focus on long haul flights.

http://www.governo.it/sites/new.governo.it/files/DL_20200520.pdf Accessed 13 May 2020

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-italy-alitalia-minister/italy-to-inject-3-billion-euros-in-new-alitalia-industry-minister-idUSKBN22J19P Accessed 13 May 2020