France

Since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic in early 2020, France has committed at least USD 57.55 billion to supporting different energy types through new or amended policies, according to official government sources and other publicly available information. These public money commitments include:

  • At least USD 7.16 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 2 policies (1 quantified and 1 unquantified)
  • At least USD 15.14 billion for conditional fossil fuels through 3 policies (3 quantified)
  • At least USD 30.48 billion for unconditional clean energy through 10 policies (10 quantified)
  • At least USD 4.54 billion for conditional clean energy through 4 policies (3 quantified and 1 unquantified)
  • At least USD 220.26 million for other energy through 1 policy (1 quantified)
Updated: 25 November 2020


At least

$22.30 billion

Supporting fossil fuel energy

$332.56

Per capita



At least

$35.03 billion

Supporting clean energy

$522.30

Per capita

By energy type, France committed at least USD 16.80 billion to oil and gas (at least USD 7.16 billion to unconditional oil and gas and at least USD 9.64 billion to conditional oil and gas).

In addition, no public money commitments identified for coal.

Further, no public money commitments identified for hydrogen based on fossil fuels.

Finally, no public money commitments identified for multiple fossil fuels.

A considerably larger amount of public money committed to supporting the economy and people of France through monetary and fiscal policies in response to the crisis may also benefit different elements of the energy sector. However, these values are not available from official legislation and statements and therefore are not included in the database. Meanwhile, in addition to monetary and fiscal measures, the database lists other policies and regulations that can also provide benefits to producers and consumers of different energy types.

These public money commitments are additional to many other government policies that had existed to support different energy types before the COVID19 pandemic.

Public money commitments to fossil fuels, clean and other energy in recovery packages, USD billion, as of 25 November 2020

Country Jurisdiction Category Policy name Sector Energy Type Mechanism Value committed, USD Date of announcement Policy type Stage Legislation and Endorsing Agency Arm of Government Primary and secondary stated objective of the policy Date of entry into force Implemented repeal date, if any Value as stated (specify currency) Value committed, national currency Value disbursed, national currency Value disbursed, USD: Policy background Links to official sources Links to additional sources
France Ile de France Clean conditional Greening of buses in Ile de France region Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1541850220.2643 2020102121/10/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Region Ile de France Government greening buses EUR 1.4 billion 1400000000 Plan to replace all buses by electric and hydrogen buses in the dense parts of the region by 2025
https://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2020/10/21/l-ile-de-france-veut-se-debarrasser-de-tous-ses-bus-diesel-d-ici-a-dix-ans_6056867_3244.html Accessed 22 October 2020
France National Clean unconditional Support for green hydrogen as part of France’s 2030 Hydrogen Strategy Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 5506607929.5154 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Prime Minister Government Reducing energy consumption and developing new low carbon technologies. EUR 5 billion 5000000000 This strategy which will run until 2030 will be focusing on: Funding of research projects for the development of hydrogen-based low carbon solutions for the maritime and aviation sectors. - Launching of a European project (IPCEI) aimed at developing and industrializing French solutions: - of fuel cells, tanks and materials to enable the development of hydrogen vehicles for mobility; - electrolyzers for low hydrogen production carbon and decarbonation of industrial sites
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 10 September 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – other support for green technologies Multiple sectors Multiple renewable Budget or off-budget transfer ... 3744493392.0705 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Prime Minister Government EUR 3.4 billion 3400000000 Supporting the development of key markets in green technologies: hydrogen, recycling and reincorporation of recycled materials, bio-sourced products and biofuels, agro-equipment for the ecological transition, decarbonation of the industry
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Other energy Recovery plan – support for nuclear energy Power generation Nuclear Budget or off-budget transfer ... 220264317.18062 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Electricity generation Prime Minister Government EUR 200 million 200000000 Support to nuclear energy for skills development, industrial investments and modernization in subcontracting
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – support for hydrogen Multiple sectors Hydrogen Budget or off-budget transfer ... 2202643171.8062 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Prime Minister Government EUR 2 billion 2000000000 Green hydrogen strategy component of France's 30bn recovery plan presented in September 2020 (development of a green hydrogen sector)
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – green infrastructure and transport Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 9449339207.0485 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Prime Minister Government EUR 8.58 billion 8580000000 Green mobility component of France's 30bn recovery plan presented in September 2020 (railway network, EVs, Bike Plan, green procurement for state-owned vehicles. Some of the key measures amongst others include EUR 4.7 billion that has been allocated to the SNCF to redevelop rail freight, in particular the Perpignan-Rungis line, short lines and two night train lines and EUR 1.2 billion for a big bike plan.
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – greening of port infrastructure Mobility Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 220264317.18062 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Prime Minister Government EUR 200 million 200000000 Greening of port infrastructure (support for modal shifts, quay electrification, etc.) component of France's 30bn recovery plan presented in September 2020
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – industry decarbonisation Other sector Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1321585903.0837 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Prime Minister Government EUR 1.2 billion 1200000000 Industry decarbonisation component of France's 30bn recovery plan presented in September 2020
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Clean conditional Aeronautic sector support plan – EUR 1.5bn for R&D for zero-emissions planes Mobility Multiple energy types Other hybrid support measures 1651982378.8546 2020060909/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Several Ministries Government to support the aeronautic sector negatively affected by the COVID-19 crisis EUR 1,5 billion 1500000000 As part of the aeronautic industry support package (reported separately in the Tracker), the French government committed €1.5bn investments over three years to support research and development (R & D) of new environmentally friendly aviation technology to reduce the industry's GHG emissions by 50% by 2050 (2005 levels) and launch a clean fuel airplane by 2035 (€300m available this year).
https://minefi.hosting.augure.com/Augure_Minefi/r/ContenuEnLigne/Download?id=94C9F4D9-0CB4-4D85-9026-7801E5E7F1E7&filename=2196%20DP%20-%20Plan%20de%20soutien%20%C3%A0%20l%27a%C3%A9ronautique.pdf Accessed 10 July 2020

https://twitter.com/Economie_Gouv/status/1270274099277901826 Accessed 10 July 2020
https://www.independent.ie/business/world/france-unveils-15bn-support-plan-for-aerospace-industry-39271230.html Accessed 10 July 2020
France National Clean unconditional Recovery plan – energy efficiency in buildings Buildings Energy efficiency Budget or off-budget transfer ... 7378854625.5507 2020090303/09/2020 Fiscal Several energy stages Prime Minister Government to support economic recovery and ecological transition EUR 6.7 billion 6700000000 This is the buildings/energy efficiency component of the EUR 30 bn plan which includes nearly 7 billion euros for the energy renovation of buildings: amongst other measures this includes 4 billion for public buildings (schools, universities, etc.) and 2 billion for households via the 'Maprimerénov' bonus, which will be accessible to all households, with no income ceiling, as of January 1, 2021
https://www.gouvernement.fr/sites/default/files/document/document/2020/09/dossier_de_presse_france_relance_-_03.09.2020.pdf Accessed 7 September 2020
France National Fossil unconditional One-year deferral of the tax advantage on non-road diesel Buildings Oil and oil products Tax or royalty or govt fee bre... 2020061818/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economy and Finance Government Reducing construction costs The cancellation of the fiscal advantage for non-road diesel has been postponed by a year, to the 1st of July 2021. This fiscal advantage represents roughly EUR 700 million per year. The fiscal advantage was initially planned to be reduced by 45% between July 2020 and December 2020 and 75% between December 2020 and July 2021.
https://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/immobilier-btp/taxation-du-gazole-nouveau-sursis-pour-les-travaux-publics-1216578 Accessed 22 June 2020
France National Clean conditional Order of March 13, 2020 relating to the conditions for transforming vehicles with thermal engines in... Mobility Energy efficiency New or extended regulation (IT... 2020040303/04/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Directorate General for Energy and Climate Government Primary: increase the retrofit of the french car fleet. 04/04/2020 The Directorate General for Energy and Climate published in the Official Journal the decree authorising the electrification of internal combustion vehicles, known as retrofit. This decree defines the conditions for the reception and installation of devices for converting vehicles with thermal engines into electric battery or fuel cell engines.
https://beta.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/texte_jo/JORFTEXT000041780558 Accessed 6 May 2020

http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=7823#:~:text=L'arr%C3%AAt%C3%A9%20du%2013%20mars,en%20vigueur%20d%C3%A8s%20le%20lendemain Accessed 6 May 2020
France Paris Clean unconditional Economic, ecological and inclusive recovery plan for the Ile de France region Multiple sectors Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 262114537.44493 2020052828/05/2020 Other Several energy stages Region Ile de France Government EUR 238,000,000 238000000 The recovery plan announced by Region Ile de France represents €1.3bn in total but the 'ecology and transports" component is only €238m Out of this €238m: - €100m for participatory budget (call for projects will open later) - €30m to support the plan for renewable energy (deployment of solar PV in high schools, etc.) - €70m for the first tranche of a new market for high schools' thermal renovation - €30m for innovative and ecological transports (incl. RER Vélo) - €4m to install public chargers for electric vehicles
https://www.iledefrance.fr/acte-i-du-plan-de-relance-economique-ecologique-et-solidaire-de-la-region-ile-de-france Accessed 19 June 2020
France National Fossil unconditional Aeronautic sector support plan (excluding previously announced support to Air France and EUR 1.5 bil... Mobility Oil and oil products Other hybrid support measures 7158590308.37 2020060909/06/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Several Ministries Government to support the aeronautic sector negatively affected by the COVID-19 crisis EUR 6,500,000,000 6500000000 While the annoucements state that the overall cost of the package will be €15 billion, the mechanisms mentioned are 'aid', investment, loans and guarantees and includes contributions from the private sector. It includes: - the €7 billion package for AirFrance - reported separately in the Tracker as fossil fuel conditional - an investment fund of €500m to €1bn to boost the development of medium-sized suppliers (Airbus, Safran, Dassault, and Thales will contribute to the fund). - €300m to help aerospace sub-contractors modernise their plants - €1.5bn investments over three years to support research into new environmentally friendly aviation technology to reduce the industry's GHG emissions by 50% by 2050 (2005 levels) and launch a clean fuel airplane by 2035 (€300m available this year) - reported separately in the Tracker as clean conditional - strengthening existing schemes for the sector, such as unemployment support and export credit guarantees - accelerating planned military orders that were scheduled for the coming years
https://minefi.hosting.augure.com/Augure_Minefi/r/ContenuEnLigne/Download?id=94C9F4D9-0CB4-4D85-9026-7801E5E7F1E7&filename=2196%20DP%20-%20Plan%20de%20soutien%20%C3%A0%20l%27a%C3%A9ronautique.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

https://www.independent.ie/business/world/france-unveils-15bn-support-plan-for-aerospace-industry-39271230.html Accessed 10 June 2020
France National Fossil conditional Automobile sector recovery plan (excluding previously announced support to Renault) – cleaner ... Mobility Oil and oil products Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1927312775.3304 2020052626/05/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economy and Finance Government EUR 1,750,000,000 1750000000 The French President announced on May 26th the automobile sector recovery plan which includes a cash for clunkers component for housholds that trade their old cars with thermal egines for more fuel efficient ones (the government will provide EUR 3000 to households that engage in such as a car scrappage scheme). In addition the plan includes a component to boost the sale of electric vehicles with an increase in subsidies to incentivize purchases moving from EUR 6000 to EUR 7000 for personal vehicles and EUR 3000 to EUR 5000 for professional use vehicles aid to support individuals that seek to purchase electric vehicles and EUR 2000 for hybrid vehicles. Other key goals include the aim to produce a million clean vehicles by 2025 while delivering 100,000 electric charing stations by 2021. The cleaner fossil fuel cars component of this plan includes EUR 800 million for a car scrappage scheme (including efficient thermal vehicles), EUR 600 million to support subcontractors in the automotive industry, EUR 200 million for investment support, EUR 150 million for innovation and industrial development.
https://www.economie.gouv.fr/files/files/directions_services/covid19-soutien-entreprises/DP-Plan_soutien_automobile26052020.pdf Accessed 26 May 2020
France National Clean conditional Automobile sector recovery plan (excluding previously announced support to Renault) – EVs Mobility Multiple energy types Budget or off-budget transfer ... 1349118942.7313 2020052626/05/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economy and Finance Government EUR 1,225,000,000 1225000000 The French President announced on May 26th the automobile sector recovery plan which includes a cash for clunkers component for housholds that trade their old cars with thermal egines for more fuel efficient ones (the government will provide EUR 3000 to households that engage in such as a car scrappage scheme). In addition the plan includes a component to boost the sale of electric vehicles with an increase in subsidies to incentivize purchases moving from EUR 6000 to EUR 7000 for personal vehicles and EUR 3000 to EUR 5000 for professional use vehicles aid to support individuals that seek to purchase electric vehicles and EUR 2000 for hybrid vehicles. Other key goals include the aim to produce a million clean vehicles by 2025 while delivering 100,000 electric sharing stations by 2021. The EV component of this plan includes EUR 535 million for ecological bonuses for electric vehicles and EUR 690 million for a pilot factory making electric batteries.
https://www.economie.gouv.fr/files/files/directions_services/covid19-soutien-entreprises/DP-Plan_soutien_automobile26052020.pdf Accessed 26 May 2020
France National Fossil conditional Bailout of Renault with some broad climate conditions Mobility Multiple energy types Loan guarantee (Hybrid) 5506607929.5154 2020052626/05/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Ministry of Economy and Finance Government EUR 5,000,000,000 5000000000 This government backed loan is seen as a key measure in a context where car manufacturers are facing significant difficulties such as Renault. It is not clear for the moment what the climate strings will be, although the government and Renault have specified that Renault will commit to its pollution emission norms for 2020-2021. The government is also keen on Renault expanding its production of electric vehicles. Also noteworthy that Bruno Le Maire wants to ensure this loan is backed by a commitment from Renault to relocalize part of its production.
https://www.economie.gouv.fr/files/files/directions_services/covid19-soutien-entreprises/DP-Plan_soutien_automobile26052020.pdf Accessed 13 May 2020

https://www.greenpeace.fr/espace-presse/5-milliards-daides-a-renault-quelles-conditionnalites-environnementales-pour-le-secteur-automobile/ Accessed 13 May 2020
France National Clean unconditional Bike Plan (“Plan Vélo”) Mobility Active transport Uncategorized 66079295.154185 2020051111/05/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Minister for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition Government EUR 60,000,000 60000000 This subsidy scheme entitles anyone to be eligible for a EUR 50 biking repair at registered mechanics. This subsidy will also pay for temporary parking spaces and cycle training. In coordination with the Federation of Bicycle Users (FUB), a network of more than 3,000 repairmen will be registered on the FUB website to agree to fix any bikes fo up to EUR 50. The state will reimburse the repairmen for the costs. The funding for the scheme was originally at EUR20 million but was increased at the end of May to EUR60 million.
https://www.ecologique-solidaire.gouv.fr/plan-velo-des-mesures-concretes-faciliter-lusage-du-velo Accessed 22 June 2020

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-52483684 Accessed 22 June 2020
France Paris Clean unconditional Financing of a 680km bike network across Paris and its surrounding municipalities Mobility Active transport Budget or off-budget transfer ... 330396475.77093 2020042222/04/2020 Fiscal Active transport (cycling or walking) Region Ile de France Government Primary: reduce congestion and air pollution Secondary: increases the possibility of social distancing while reducing the need to use crowded public transports EUR 300,000,000 300000000 This measure is only thought of a the moment in the context of the wider Parisian region. The aim is to finance up to 680km of cycling tracks in order to reduce congestion and air pollution.The project will be financed at 60% by the Region Ile de France and the rest by the national government and affected departments and municipalities.
https://www.iledefrance.fr/plus-de-pistes-cyclables-pour-faire-du-velo-un-mode-de-deplacement-du-quotidien Accessed 29 April 2020

http://www.leparisien.fr/info-paris-ile-de-france-oise/transports/deconfinement-l-lle-de-france-investit-300-millions-d-euros-pour-la-realisation-du-rer-velo-21-04-2020-8303484.php Accessed 29 April 2020
France National Fossil conditional Government backed loans to Air France airline company with climate strings attached Mobility Oil and oil products Loan guarantee (Hybrid) 7709251101.3216 2020042424/04/2020 Fiscal Energy use (all energy types, consumption in transport, household use, buildings etc) Government Primary: revive AirFrance company in a context of plumetting flights due to C-19 Secondary: reduce climate impact/emissions of AirFrance 07/05/2020 EUR 7,000,000,000 7000000000 The French government will provide EUR 3 billion in direct loans to the airline. EUR 4 billion loans will be provided by commercial banks, guaranteed by the state. The European Commission has approved France’s loan to Air France, which comes with conditions to reduce emissions, including ending some short-haul flights. Campaigners have welcomed this move, but noted that 85% of aviation emissions globally come from flights over 1,100km.
https://minefi.hosting.augure.com/Augure_Minefi/r/ContenuEnLigne/Download?id=94C9F4D9-0CB4-4D85-9026-7801E5E7F1E7&filename=2196%20DP%20-%20Plan%20de%20soutien%20%C3%A0%20l%27a%C3%A9ronautique.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

https://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/tourisme-transport/air-france-laide-de-letat-conditionnee-a-une-reduction-des-vols-interieurs-1199282#xtor=RSS-153 Accessed 10 June 2020
https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/entry/air-france-des-prets-de-7-milliards-deuros-pour-sauver-la-compagnie_fr_5ea32cb3c5b669fd89246f9c Accessed 10 June 2020